Sainsbury, DP, Sainsbury, BL & Lorig, LJ 2010, 'Investigation of caving induced subsidence at the abandoned Grace Mine', in Y Potvin (ed.), Caving 2010: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Block and Sublevel Caving
, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 189-204, https://doi.org/10.36487/ACG_rep/1002_11_Sainsbury
The Grace Mine, located in southeast Pennsylvania USA, was owned and operated by Bethlehem Steel Corporation from 1951–1977. During this time, iron ore was extracted using the underground panel caving mining method that has resulted in significant surface subsidence. Upon recovery of the water table after mining, a lake has formed over much of the subsided area. Prior to redevelopment of the abandoned mine site for residential and light industrial usage, investigation of the subsidence zone of influence, and the potential for further subsidence has been undertaken.
Agarwal, R., Eben, C.F. and Taylor, C.E. (1973) Rock Mechanics Program at Grace Mine, Technical Report No. 3, Henry Krumb School of Mines, Columbia University, New York.
Anon (1947) Report of the Special Committee on Mining Subsidence, Institution of Municipal Engineers, London.
Basu, D. (1974) Genesis of the Grace Mine Magnetite Deposit, Morgantown, Berks County, Southeastern Pennsylvania, Ph.D. Thesis, Lehigh University.
Board, M. and Pierce, M. (2009) A review of recent experience in modelling of caving, International Workshop on Numerical Modelling for Underground Mine Excavation Design, June 28, Asheville, North Carolina, In conjunction with the 43rd U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium.
Brauner, G. (1973) Subsidence Due to Underground Mining, U.S. Bureau of Mines, IC 8571.
Cavieres, P., Gaete, S., Lorig, L. and Gomez, P. (2003) Three-Dimensional Analysis of Fracturing Limits Induced by Large Scale Underground Mining at El Teniente Mine, in Soil and Rock America 2003, in Proceedings 39th U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium, P.J. Culligan, H.H. Einstein and A.J. Whittle (eds), June 2003, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Verlag Glückauf, Essen, pp. 893–900.
Collins, P.J. (1977) Measurement and Analysis of Residual Mining Subsidence Movements, Large Ground Movements and Structures, in Proceedings Conference at University of Wales, Institute of Science and Technology, Cardiff, Wales, Wiley and Sons, New York.
Goodman, T. (1970) Internal USBM monthly subsidence monitoring report.
Grard, C. (1969) Mining Subsidence and the Means Permitting the Limiting of their Effects on the Surface (in French), Revue de l’Industrie Mineral, 51, (January).
Gray, R.E., Bruhn, R.W. and Turka, R.J. (1977) Study and Analysis of Surface Subsidence Over Mined Pittsburgh Coalbed, U.S. Bureau of Mines, J0366047.
Hood, M., Ewy, R.T. and Riddle, L.R. (1981) Empirical Methods of Subsidence Prediction — A Case Study, Workshop on Surface Subsidence Due to Underground Mining, West Virginia University, Morgantown.
Itasca Consulting Group, Inc. (2009) FLAC3D – Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua in 3 Dimensions, Ver. 4.0, User’s Manual, Minneapolis, Itasca.
Luo, Y. and Peng, S.S. (2000) Long-Term Subsidence Associated with Longwall Mining — Its Causes, Development and Magnitude, Mining Engineering, Vol. 52(10), October.
Lupo, J.F. (1999) Large-scale surface disturbances resulting from underground mass mining, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Minining Sciences, Vol. 35(4–5), Paper No. 25.
Panek, L.A. (1984) Subsidence in Undercut-Cave Operations, Subsidence Resulting from Limited Extraction of Two Neighboring-Cave Operations, Department of Mining Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan.
Sainsbury, B., Pierce, M. and Mas Ivars, D. (2008) Analysis of Caving Behaviour Using a Synthetic Rock Mass (SRM) ‐ Ubiquitous Joint Rock Mass (UJRM) Modelling Technique, in Proceedings 1st Southern Hemisphere International Rock Mechanics Symposium, (SHIRMS), Y. Potvin, J. Carter, A. Dyskin and R. Jeffrey (eds),
16–19 September 2009, Perth, Australia, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, Vol. 1 – Mining and Civil,
Shadrin, A.G. and Zomotin, V.B. (1977) Calculating the Durations of Surface Movements (in Russian), Fiziko-Tekhnicheskie Problemy Razrabotki Poleznykh Isopaemykh, No. 6.
Sims, S.J. (1968) The Grace Mine Magnetite Deposit, Berks County, Pennsylvania, in Ore Deposits of the United States, The Graton-Sales Volume, J.D. Ridge (ed), AIME, New York, Vol. 1, pp. 108–124.
Singh, M.M. (2003) Mine Subsidence, in SME Mining Engineering Handbook (3rd ed), Society for Mining Metallurgy and Exploration, Inc., Littleton.
Stafford, B. (2002) The Grace Mine Story, The Bee Line, Vol. 24, No. 3 and 4.
Stewart, D., Rein, R. and Firewick, D. (1984) Surface Subsidence at the Henderson Mine, in Geomechanics Applications in Underground Hardrock Mining, SME/AIME, New York.
van der Merve, N.J. (1999) Sub Surface Erosion — A Post Subsidence Phenomenon, in Proceedings 9th ISRM Congress on Rock Mechanics, Paris, Balkema, Rotterdam, Vol. 1.
Williams, D.J. (2000) Assessment of Embankment Parameters, Slope Stability in Surface Mining, Littleton, Colorado, SME.