Belem, T, Fourie, AB & Fahey, M 2010, 'Measurement of volume change in cemented mine backfills at early ages', in R Jewell & AB Fourie (eds), Proceedings of the First International Seminar on the Reduction of Risk in the Management of Tailings and Mine Waste
, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 449-462.
In this paper, the dilatometry (or volumetric method) was use for direct measurements of the chemical
shrinkage of cemented mine backfill (CMB). This test follows an ASTM standard test protocol and is very
simple to conduct. For the first time, the results of direct measurements of volume reduction in CMB were
obtained. These results confirm that the higher water–to–cement ratios in CMB lead to less efficiency of the
hydration reactions at early age. This method can be used routinely to assess and understand the short term
hydration processes in CMB.
Acker, P. (2004) Swelling, shrinkage and creep: a mechanical approach to cement hydration, Materials and
Structures/Concrete Science and Engineering, Vol. 37, pp. 237–243.
ASTM C1608 (2007) Test Method for Chemical Shrinkage of Hydraulic Cement Paste, The American Society of
Testing and Materials, USA.
Belem, T. and Benzaazoua, M. (2007) Underground mine paste backfill technology: applications and design methods,
Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, Vol. 26(2), pp. 147–174.
Beltzung, F. and Wittmann, F.H. (2000) Dissolution of cement and early chemical shrinkage of cement paste, in
Proceedings RILEM symposium on shrinkage of concrete (Shrinkage 2000), V. Baroghel-Bouny and P. Aïtcin
(eds), Paris: RILEM Publications; 2000, pp. 91–97.
Bensted, J. (1983) Early hydration of Portland cement – Effect of water/cement ratio, Cement and Concrete Research,
Vol. 13, pp. 493–498.
Bentz, D.P., Sant, G. and Weiss, J. (2008) Early-Age Properties of Cement-Based Materials, Influence of Cement
Fineness, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 20(7), pp. 502–508.
Benzaazoua, M., Fall, M. and Belem, T. (2004) A contribution to understanding the hardening process of cemented
pastefill, Minerals Engineering, Vol. 17(2), pp. 141–152.
Boivin, S., Acker, P., Rigaud, S. and Clavaud, B. (1998) Experimental assessment of chemical shrinkage of hydrating
cement paste, in Proceedings of the International Workshop on Autogenous Shrinkage of Concrete (Autoshrink
’98), E.I. Tazawa (ed), Londres E&FN Spon, pp. 81–92.
Bonett, A. and Pafitis, D. (1996) Getting to the Root of Gas Migration, Oilfield Review, Spring 1996, Vol. 8, No. 1,
Bouasker, M., Mounanga, P., Turcry, P., Loukili, A. and Khelidj, A. (2008) Chemical shrinkage of cement pastes and
mortars at very early age: Effect of limestone filler and granular inclusions, Cement and Concrete Composites,
Vol. 30, pp. 13–22.
Buil, M. (1979) Studies of the shrinkage of hardening cement paste, (in French), D.Eng. thesis, Rapport de recherche
LPC No. 92, Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées, Paris.
Chenevert, M.E. and Shrestha, B.K. (1991) Chemical shrinkage properties of oilfield cements, Journal of SPE Drilling
Engineering, Vol. 6(1), pp. 37–43.
Cooke, C.E. Jr., Kluck, M.P. and Medrano, R. (1983) Field measurements of annular pressure and temperature during
primary cementing, Journal of Petroleum Technology, Vol. 35(8), pp. 1429–1438.
Czernin, W. (1962) Cement Chemistry and Physics for Civil Engineers, Crosby Lockwood & Son Ltd., London,
Damidot, D. and Nonat, A. (1991) Investigations of the C3S hydration process during the first hours of hydration,
RILEM Proceedings 16 on Hydration and Setting of Cements, Dijon, France.
Felman, R.F. and Sereda, P.J. (1968) Matériaux et Constructions, Vol. 1, 509 p.
Fourie, A., Helinski, M. and Fahey, M. (2006) Filling the gap – a geomechanics perspective, Australian Centre for
Geomechanics Newsletter 26, Perth, Australia, pp. 1–4.
Garcia-Boivin, S. (1999) Retrait au jeune âge du béton: Développement d’une méthode expérimentale et contribution à
l’analyse physique du retrait endogène, Ph.D. thesis, Paris, ENPC; 1999 [in French].
Geiker, M. (1983) Measurements of chemical shrinkage and a systematic evaluation of hydration curves by means of
the dispersion model, Ph.D. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark.
Measurement of volume change in cemented mine backfills at early ages T. Belem et al.
462 Mine Waste 2010, Perth, Australia
Geiker, M. and Knudsen, T. (1982) Chemical shrinkage of Portland cement pastes, Cement and Concrete Research,
Vol. 12(5), pp. 603–610.
Grabinsky, M. and Simms, P. (2006) Self-desiccation of cemented paste fill and implications for mine design, in
Proceedings Ninth International Seminar on Paste Thickened Tailings, Limerick, Ireland, 3–7 April 2006, R.J.
Jewell, S. Lawson, P. Newman (eds), Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, Australia, pp. 323−332.
Hansen, P.F., Jessing, J., Mønsted, K. and Trudsø, E. (1968) The influence of the temperature on chemical shrinkage at
early stages, in Proceedings 5th International Symposium on Chemistry of Cement, Tokyo, Vol. 3, pp. 503–521.
Helinski, M., Fourie, A.B., Fahey, F. and Ismail, M. (2007) Assessment of the self-desiccation process in cemented
mine backfills, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 44(10), pp. 1148–1156.
Illiston, J.M., Dinwoodie, J.M. and Smith, A.A. (1979) Concrete, timber and metals : the nature and behaviour of
structural materials, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, 663 p.
Justnes, H., Clemmens, F., Depuydt, P., Van Gemert, D. and Sellevold, E.J. (2000) Correlating the deviation point
between external and total chemical shrinkage with the setting time and other characteristics of hydrating cement
paste, in Proceedings RILEM symposium on shrinkage of concrete (Shrinkage 2000), V. Baroghel-Bouny and
P. Aïtcin (eds) Paris: RILEM Publications, pp. 57–73.
Justnes, H., Reyniers, B., Van Loo, D. and Sellevold, E.J. (1994) An evaluation of methods for measuring chemical
shrinkage of cementitious paste, Nordic Concrete Research, Vol. 14, pp. 45–61.
Knudsen, T. and Geiker, M. (1982) Chemical Shrinkage as an Indicator of the Stage of Hardening, International
Conference on Concrete of Early Ages, Paris, ENPC Press, Vol. I, pp. 163–165.
Levine, D.C., Thomas, E.W. and Bezner, H.P. (1979) Annular gas flow after cementing: A look at practical solutions,
Paper SPE 8255 presented at the 1979 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Las Vegas, September
23–26, American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc.
Lide, D.R. (1997) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, New York, CRC Press, 78th edition.
Parrott, L.J., Geiker, M., Gutteridge, W.A. and Killoh, D., (1990) Monitoring Portland Cement Hydration: Comparison
of Methods, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 20, pp. 919–926.
Powers, T.C. (1935) Absorption of water by Portland cement paste during the hardening process, Industrial and
Engineering Chemistry; Vol. 27(7), pp. 790–794.
Powers, T.C. (1968) The Properties of Fresh Concrete, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 664 p.
Powers, T.C. and Brownyard, T.L. (1948) Studies on the Physical Properties of Hardened Portland Cement Paste, PCA
Bulletin 22, Chicago, Illinois.
Sant, G., Lura, P. and Weiss, J. (2006) Measurement of Volume Change in Cementitious Materials at Early Ages:
Review of Testing Protocols and Interpretation of Results, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the
Transportation Research Board, No. 1979, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies,
Washington, D.C., 2006, pp. 21–29.
Skoblinskaya, N.N. and Krasilniko, K.J. (1975) Changes in crystal structure of ettingite on dehydration 1, Cement and
Concrete Research, Vol. 5, pp. 381–394.
Witteman, M. and Simms, O. (2010) Hydraulic response of cemented paste backfill during and after hydration, in
Proceedings Thirteenth International Seminar on Paste and Thickened Tailings (Paste2010), R. Jewell and A.B.
Fourie (eds), 3–6 May 2010, Toronto, Canada, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 199−208.