Authors: Regnier, TC; Mokgalaka, ND; Memel, O; Laing, MD


DOI https://doi.org/10.36487/ACG_rep/1152_10_Regnier

Cite As:
Regnier, TC, Mokgalaka, ND, Memel, O & Laing, MD 2011, 'Trichoderma harzianum as a tool for reaching suitable growth and vegetation cover on mine tailings', in AB Fourie, M Tibbett & A Beersing (eds), Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Mine Closure, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 85-91, https://doi.org/10.36487/ACG_rep/1152_10_Regnier

Download citation as:   ris   bibtex   endnote   text   Zotero


Abstract:
Rapid and efficient revegetation of mining landscapes is always a challenge. One of the main difficulties in revegetation is the amount of plants species which are able to establish and survive in the harsh conditions often associated with mining. Finding a suitable growth medium is the initial requirement for the plant to produce an appropriate vegetation cover. Fast growing plants with a good root system are of interest as they not only immobilise metals but also prevent erosion and soil compaction. For this reason, it is important for the phytoremediation biotechnologies to have a better understanding of the potential growth of different plant species. Recent publications have shown the potential interest of using grasses as the first stage of revegetation. The candidates should be fast growing and resist metal toxicity when planted on mine tailings. Many products have been registered as growth promoters. One of them, Eco-T, a fungal species (Trichoderma harzianum Rifai strain kd) is currently produced in South Africa and well accepted as a growth promoter. AgriSil K50 a silica based product is known to provide a regular supply of potassium to the plant. The Department of Chemistry at Tshwane University of Technology has been assessing the efficacy of this growth promoter Trichoderma harzianum (Eco-T) in increasing the growth of some grasses while buffering the soil contaminated by copper and arsenic. Anthericum saundersiae was used as a model plant to confirm the effect of Eco-T on growth under stress conditions, thus providing preliminary data for further application. This study was extended to Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench) to evaluate its use as a phytoremediation candidate and as an alternative source of income from biofuel production. Initial results indicate that the combination of Eco-T and AgriSil K50 leads to a significant increase of the biomass, chlorophyll content in the presence of metals. This confirms that the application of this growth promoter in association with a chelating agent was able to reduce the toxic effect of the metals on the plants providing adequate stimulation of the root system and above ground biomass. In conclusion, this study highlights the importance of including growth promoters in the revegetation strategies.

References:
Abhilash, P.G. and Yunus, M. (2011) Can we use biomass produced from phytoremediation? Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol. 35, pp. 1371–1372.
Barceló, J. and Poschenrieder, C. (2003) Phytoremediation: principles and perspectives, Contributions to Science, Vol. 2(3), pp. 333–344.
Conesa, H.M., Garcia, G., Faz, A. and Arnaldos, R. (2007) Dynamics of metal tolerant plant communities development in mine tailings from Cartagena-La Union Mining District (SE Spain) and their interest for further revegetation purposes, Chemosphere, Vol. 68, pp. 1180–1185.
Du Plooy, W., Regnier, T. and Combrinck, S. (2009) Essential oil amended coatings as alternatives to synthetic fungicides in citrus postharvest management, Postharvest Biology and Technology, Vol. 53, pp. 117–122.
Hendry, G.A.F. and Price, A.H. (1993) In Methods in Comparative Plant Ecology: A Laboratory Manual, G.A.F. Hendry and J.P. Grime (eds) Chapman and Hall, London, UK, pp. 148–151.
Hoyos-Carvajal, L., Orduz, S. and Bissett, J. (2009) Growth stimulation in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by Trichoderma, Biological Control, Vol. 51, pp. 409–416.
Inbar, J., Abramsky, M., Cohen, D. and Chet, I. (1994) Plant growth enhancement and disease control by Trichoderma harzianum in vegetable seedlings grown under commercial condition, European Journal of Plant Pathology, Vol. 100, pp. 337–346.
Joubert, R. (2009) Fungus that boosts potatoes, maize, Farmers Weekly, 22 May, p. 24.
Kahiluoto, H., Kuisma, M., Havukainen, J., Luoranen, M., Karttunen, P., Lehtonen, E. and Horttanainen, M. (2011) Potential of agrifood wastes in mitigation of climate change and eutrophication – two case regions, Biomass and Bioenergy, In press, .
Mithöfer, A., Schulze, B. and Boland, W. (2004) Biotic and heavy metal stress response in plants: evidence for common signals, FEBS Letters, Vol. 566, pp. 1–5.
Mleczek, M., Rutkowski, P., Rissmann, I., Kaczmarek, Z., Golinski, P., Szentneer, K., Strażyńska, K. and Stachowiak, A. (2010) Biomass productivity and phytoremediation potential of Salix alba and Salix viminalis, Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol. 34, pp. 1410–1418.
Mokgalaka-Matlala, N.S., Combrinck, S., Regnier, T. and Weiersbye, I. (2010) Selection of tree species as assets for mine phytoremediation using the genus Rhus (Anacardiaceae) as a model, Proceedings Fifth International Conference on Mine Closure (Mine Closure 2010), A.B. Fourie, M. Tibbett and J. Wiertz (eds), 23–26 November 2010, Viña del Mar, Chile, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 343–350.
Pang, J., Chan, G.S.Y., Zhang, J., Liang, J. and Wong, M.H. (2003) Physiological aspects of vetiver grass for rehabilitation in abandoned metalliferous mine wastes, Chemosphere, Vol. 52, pp. 1559–1570.
Petras, M.S.C., Zheng, Q.A. and Sarma-Mamillapalle, V.K. (2007) The phytoalexins from Brassicaceae: structure, biological activity, synthesis and biosynthesis, Natural Product Communications, Vol. 2, pp. 319–330.
Petrisor, I.G., Dobrota, S., Komnitsas, K., Lazar, I., Kuperberg, J.M. and Serban, M. (2004) Artificial inoculation: perspectives in tailings phytostabilization, International Journal of Phytoremediation, Vol. 6(1), pp. 1–15.
Pidwirny, M. (2006) Primary productivityof plants, Fundamentals of Physical Geography, 2nd edition.
Posmyk, M.M., Kontek, R. and Janas, K.M. (2008) Antioxidant enzymes activity and phenolic compounds content in red cabbage seedlings exposed to copper stress, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Vol. 72, pp. 596–602.
Price, M.L., Van Scoyoc, S. and Butler, L.G. (1978) A critical evaluation of the vanillin reaction as an assay for tannin in sorghum grain, Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, Vol. 26(5), pp. 1214–1218.
Rouxel, T., Kollmann, A., Boulidard, L. and Mithen, R. (1991) Abiotic elicitation of indole phytoalexins and resistance to Leptosphaeria maculans within Brassiceae, Planta, Vol. 184, pp. 271–278.
Smith, V.H., Tilman, G.D. and Nekola, J.C. (1999) Eutrophication: impact of excess nutrient inputs on freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems, Environmental Pollution, Vol. 100, pp. 179–196.
Swain, T. and Hillis, W.E. (1959) The phenolic constituents of Prunus domestica I, The quantitative analysis of phenolic constituents, Journal of Science and Food Agriculture, Vol. 10, pp. 63–68.
Tordoff, G.M., Baker, A.J.M. and Willis, A.J. (2000) Current approaches to the revegetation and reclamation of metalliferous mine wastes, Chemosphere, Vol. 41, pp. 219–228.
Vernay, P., Gauthier-Moussard, C. and Hitmi, A. (2007) Interction of bioaccumulation of heavy metal chromium with water relation, mineral nutrition and photosynthesis in developed leaves of Lolium perenne L., Chemosphere, Vol. 68, pp. 1563–1575.
Whiting, S.N., Reeves, R.D., Richards, D., Johnson, M.S., Cooke, J.A., Malaisse, F., Paton, A., Smith, J.A.C., Angle, J.S., Chaney, R.L., Ginocchio, R., Jaffre, F.R., McIntyre, T., Purvis, O.W., Salt, D.E., Schat, H., Zhao, F.J. and Baker, A.J.M. (2004) Research priorities for conservation of metallophyte biodiversity and their potential for restoration and site remediation, Restoration Ecology Vol. 12, pp. 106–116.




© Copyright 2021, Australian Centre for Geomechanics (ACG), The University of Western Australia. All rights reserved.
Please direct any queries or error reports to repository-acg@uwa.edu.au