Authors: MacKenzie, DD; Naeth, MA


DOI https://doi.org/10.36487/ACG_rep/1152_19_Mackenzie

Cite As:
MacKenzie, DD & Naeth, MA 2011, 'Surface soil handling on mines in the boreal forest – from textbook to operations', in AB Fourie, M Tibbett & A Beersing (eds), Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Mine Closure, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 171-179, https://doi.org/10.36487/ACG_rep/1152_19_Mackenzie

Download citation as:   ris   bibtex   endnote   text   Zotero


Abstract:
Conservation of forest surface soil is critical for the development of self-sustaining forested ecosystems on post-mined land. Salvaging surface soil from upland boreal forests received little attention in the past and was often not required. Current research has shown forest surface soil provides an economical, diverse and abundant source of native propagules and an important source of nutrients and soil fauna. Salvage depth affects soil quality and potential for in situ propagules to emerge. Salvaging too deep will dilute the propagule and organic matter content of the forest floor with underlying mineral soil; however, salvaging too shallow may not provide sufficient root to soil contact for successful emergence of vegetative propagules. Optimal salvage depth will be impacted by various factors such as soil texture, source location and reclamation objectives. Salvaged surface soil should be directly placed, as stockpiling surface soil for even short periods of time reduces viability of most boreal plant species and causes substantial changes to soil chemical properties. The time between harvesting deciduous forests and soil salvage affects success of establishing deciduous trees; salvaging surface soil when trees have a sufficient amount of carbohydrate reserve in the root system can result in higher establishment rates. During salvage if too much mulch is incorporated with upland surface soil, viability of native propagules can be reduced. Optimal placement depth and distribution of surface soil is also dependent on many factors including salvage depth, substrate quality and reclamation objectives. Placement of coarse woody debris and/or straw on the surface soil creates microsites that aid in reestablishment of native plants. Data from field research at operational and plot scales are presented to support best practices. Various adaptive management practices developed from theory, research and operations to help reduce negative impacts on soil quality and viability of native propagules are discussed.

References:
Abdul-Kareem, A.W. and McRae, S.G. (1984) The effects on topsoil of long term storage in stockpiles, Plant and Soil Journal, Vol. 76, pp. 357–363.
Anderson, T.R., Grundy, M.G. and Bell, L.C. (1988) Effect of stockpiling on two soils from the bowen coal basin and the ramifications for soil management in rehabilitation, in Proceedings Volume I, Environmental Workshop, A.C.T. Dixon (ed), September 1988, Australian Mining Industry Council, Darwin, Australia, pp. 256–272.
Andrews, J.A., Johnson, J.E., Torbert, J.L., Burger, J.A. and Kelting, D.L. (1998) Minesoil and site properties associated with early height growth of eastern white pine, Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 27,
pp. 192–199.
Arocena, J.M. and Sanborn, P. (1999) Mineralogy and genesis of selected soils and their implications for forest management in central and northeastern British Columbia, Canadian Journal of Forest Soil Science, Vol. 79,
pp. 571–592.
Barbour, L., Chanasyk, D., Hendry, J., Leskiw, L., Macyk, T., Mendosa, C., Naeth, M.A., Nichol, C., O’Kane, M., Purdy, B., Qualizza, C., Quideau, S. and Welham, C. (2007) Soil capping research in the Athabasca oil sands region, Vol. 1, Technology Synthesis, Draft.
Battigelli, J. (2006) Fact Sheet 36: soil arthropod communities on natural and reclaimed soils in the Athabasca oil sand region, in Soil Capping Reclamation Research, Volume 2: Fact Sheets.
Beckingham, J.D. and Archibald, J.H. (1996) Field guide to ecosites of northern Alberta, Northern Forestry Centre, Forestry Canada, Northwest Region, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Benvenuti, S. (2003) Soil texture involvement in germination and emergence of buried weed seeds, Journal of Agronomy, Vol. 95, pp. 191–198.
Brown, R.L. (2010) Use of woody debris as an amendment for reclamation after oil sands mining, M.Sc Thesis, Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Chambers, J.C., Macmahon, J.A. and Haefner, J.H. (1991) Seed entrapment in alpine ecosystems: effects of soil particle size and diaspore morphology, Ecology, Vol. 72, pp. 1668–1677.
DePuit, E.J. (1984) Potential topsoiling strategies for enhancement of vegetation diversity on mined lands, Minerals and the Environment, Vol. 6, pp. 115–119.
Fisher, R.F. and Binkley, D. (2000) Ecology and management of forest soils, Third Edition, Jon Wiley and Sons, New York, USA.
Frey, B.R., Lieffers, V.J., Landhäusser, S.M., Comeau, P.G. and Greenway, K.J. (2003) An analysis of sucker regeneration of trembling aspen, Canadian Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 33, pp. 1169–1179.
Ghose, M.K. (2001) Management of topsoil for geologic environmental reclamation of coal mining areas. Environmental Geology, Vol. 40, pp. 1405–1410.
Hall, H.L., Barton, C.D. and Baskin, C.C. (2010) Topsoil seed bank of an oak-hickory forest in eastern Kentucky as a restoration tool on surface mines, Restoration Ecology, Vol. 18, pp. 834–842.
Harris, J.A. and Birch, P. (1987) The effects on topsoil storage during opencast mining operations, Journal of Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 40, pp. 220–221.
Harris, J.A., Birch, P. and Short, K.C. (1989) Changes in the microbial community and physico-chemical characteristics of topsoils stockpiled during opencast mining, Soil Use and Management, Vol. 5, pp. 161–168.
Hills, S.C. and Morris, D.M. (1992) The function of seed banks in northern forest ecosystems: a literature review, Ministry of Natural Resources, Sault Ste., Marie, Ontario, Canada, Forest Research Information Paper. No. 107.
Holmes, P.M. (2001) Shrubland restoration following woody alien invasion and mining: effects of topsoil depth, seed sources and fertilizer addition, Restoration Ecology, Vol. 9, pp. 71–84.
Huang, W.Z. and Schoenau, J.J. (1996) Forms, amounts and distribution of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur in a boreal aspen forest soil, Canadian Journal of Soil Science, Vol. 76, pp. 373–385.
Hunter, F. and Currie, J.A. (1956) Structural changes during bulk soil storage, Journal of Soil Science, Vol. 7,
pp. 75–80.
Kundu, N.K. and Ghose, M.K. (1997) Shelf life of stock-piled topsoil of an open cast coal mine, Environmental Conservation, Vol. 24, pp. 24–30.
Landhäusser S.M. and Lieffers, V.J. (2003) Seasonal changes in carbohydrate reserves in mature northern Populus tremuloides clones, Trees, Vol. 17, pp. 471–476.
Landhäusser, S.M. and Lieffers, V.J. (1997) Seasonal changes in carbohydrate storage and regrowth in rhizomes and stems of four boreal forest shrubs: applications in Picea glauca understorey regeneration, Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 12, pp. 27–32.
Lanoue, A. and Qualizza, C. (1999) Lfh and shallow mineral horizons as inoculants on reclaimed areas to improve native species catch, Environmental Affairs, Syncrude Canada Ltd., Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, Preliminary Results Report, 32 p.
Leck, M.A., Parker, T.V. and Simpson, R.L. (1989) Ecology of soil seed banks, Academic Press Inc., San Diego, California, USA.
Little, T.I., Pluth, D.J., Corns, I.G.W. and Gilmore, D.W. (2002) Post-fire forest floor development along toposequences of white spruce-trembling aspen mixedwood communities in west-central Alberta, Canadian Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 32, pp. 892–902.
MacKenzie, D. (2006) Assisted natural recovery using a forest soil propagule bank, M.Sc Thesis, Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
MacKenzie, D. (2010) Reclamation of a Coal Mine Using Direct Placed Forest Surface Soil, presented at the Canadian Land Reclamation Association Conference, 24–26 February, 2010, by Navus Environmental Inc., Red Deer, Alberta, Canada.
MacKenzie, D. (2011) Reclamation using upland surface soils from boreal forests in the oil sands, PhD Thesis, Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada (unpublished).
MacKenzie, D. and Naeth, M.A. (2010) The role of the forest soil propagule bank in assisted natural recovery after oil sands mining, Journal of Restoration Ecology, Vol. 18, pp. 418–427.
Macyk, T.M. and Drozdowski, B.L. (2008) Comprehensive report on operational reclamation techniques in the mineable oil sands region, created for the Cumulative Environmental Management Association, Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada.
McMillan, R.A. (2005) Forest floor as an amendment in oil sands reclamation, MSc. Thesis, Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Peterson, E.B. and Peterson, N.M. (1992) Ecology, management and use of aspen and balsam poplar in the prairie provinces, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, Special Report 1.
Power, J.F., Ries, R.E. and Sandoval, F.M. (1976) Use of soil materials on spoils-effects on thickness and quality, North Dakota Farm Research, Vol. 34, pp. 23–24.
Power, J.F., Sandoval, M. and Ria, R.E. (1979) Topsoil-subsoil requirements to restore North Dakota mined land to original productivity, Mining Engineering, Vol. 31, pp. 708–1712.
Qi, M.Q. and Scarratt, J.B. (1998) Effect of harvesting method on seed bank dynamics in a boreal mixedwood forest in north western Ontario, Canadian Journal of Botany, Vol. 76, pp. 872–883.
Redente, E.F., Mclendon, T. and Agnew, W. (1997) Influence of topsoil depth on plant community dynamics of a seeded site in northwest Colorado, Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation, Vol. 11, pp. 139–149.
Rochefort, L., Quinty, F., Campeau, S., Johnson, K. and Malteret, T. (2003) North American approach to the restoration of sphagnum dominated peatlands, Wetlands Ecology and Management, Vol. 11, pp. 3–20.
Rodrigue, J.A. and Burger, J.A. (2004) Forest soil productivity of mined land in the midwestern and eastern coalfield regions, Science Society of America Journal, Vol. 68, pp. 833–844.
Rokich, D.P., Dixon, K.W., Sivasithamparam, K. and Meney, K.A. (2000) Topsoil handling and storage effects on woodland restoration in western Australia, Restoration Ecology, Vol. 8, pp. 196–208.
Rydgren, K. and Hestmark, G. (1997) The soil propagule bank in a boreal old-growth spruce forest: changes with depth and relationship to aboveground vegetation, Canadian Journal of Botany, Vol. 75, pp. 121–128.
Rydgren, K., Okland, R.H. and Hestmark, G. (2004) Disturbance severity and community resilience in a boreal forest, Ecology, Vol. 85, pp. 1906–1915.
Schenk, H.J. and Jackson, R.B. (2002) The global biography of roots, Ecological Monographs, Vol. 72, pp. 311–328.
Skrindo, A.B. and Halvorsen, R. (2008) Natural revegetation on forest topsoil and subsoil along roadsides in boreal forest, Applied Vegetation Science, Vol. 11, pp. 483–490.
Skrindo, A.B. and Pedersen, P.A. (2004) Natural revegetation of indigenous roadside vegetation by propagules fom topsoil, Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, Vol. 3, pp. 29–37.
Smyth, C.R. (1997) Early succession patterns with a native species seed mix on amended and unamended coal mine spoil in the rocky mountains of southeastern British Columbia, Canada, Arctic and Alpine Research, Vol. 29,
pp. 184–195.
Stevens, V. (1997) The ecological role of coarse woody debris: an overview of the ecological importance of coarse woody debris in B.C. forests, Research Branch, B.C. Ministry of Forests, Victoria, B.C., Canada, Working Paper 30/1997.
Strong, W.L. and La Roi, G.H. (1983) Rooting depths and successional development of selected boreal forest communities, Canadian Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 13, pp. 577–588.
Tacey, W.H. and Glossop, B.L. (1980) Assessment of topsoil handling techniques for rehabilitation of sites mined for bauxite within the Jarrah Forest of Western Australia, Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 17, pp. 195–201.
Torbert, J.L., Tuladhar, A.R., Burger, J.A. and Bell, J.C. (1988) Minesoil property effects on the height of ten year old white pine, Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 17, pp. 189–192.
Visser, S., Fujikawa, J., Griffiths, C.L. and Parkinson, D. (1984) Effect of topsoil storage on microbial activity, primary production, and decomposition potential, Plant and Soil Journal, Vol. 82, pp. 41–50.
Whittle, C.A., Duchesne, L.C. and Needham, T. (1998) Soil seed bank of a jack pine ecosystem (Pinus banksiana), International Journal of Wildland Fire, Vol. 8, pp. 67–71.
Williamson, J.C. and Johnson, D.B. (1990) Determination of the activity of soil microbial populations in stored and restored soils at opencast coal sites, Soil Biology and Biochemistry Journal, Vol. 22, pp. 671–675.
Ziemkiewicz, P.F., Takyi, S.K. and Regier, H. (eds) (1980) Proceedings: workshop on reconstruction of forest soils in reclamation, Alberta Land Conservation and Reclamation Council Report # RRTAC 80-4, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.




© Copyright 2020, Australian Centre for Geomechanics (ACG), The University of Western Australia. All rights reserved.
Please direct any queries or error reports to repository-acg@uwa.edu.au