Pollo, HN, Mansur, HI, Sompie, CED & Kojansow, J 2012, 'Carbon stock estimation on the reclaimed forest of PT Newmont Minahasa Raya in Ratatotok, Southeast Minahasa', in AB Fourie & M Tibbett (eds), Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Mine Closure
, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 573-584, https://doi.org/10.36487/ACG_rep/1208_49_Pollo
Describing the quality of forest ecosystems using a carbon sequestration approach is important in understanding global warming. From 1997 to 2010, PT Newmont Minahasa Raya (PTNMR) has reclaimed 215 ha bare land of ex-mining area. The area now has become a fully functioning forest ecosystem. The forest absorbs CO2 from the atmosphere and accumulates it into a living biomass. The aim of this study was to estimate carbon sink in the Ratatotok forest, an ex-mining area. The study observed: 1) species composition at the various stages of plant development; 2) tree height and diameter to estimate the standing biomass; 3) carbon content of the understorey species; 4) carbon content of the ground litters; and 5) soil carbon content. Carbon content measurement employed a loss on ignition method, while total carbon was estimated using existing allometric equations. This study was conducted in the reclaimed areas from six different years, i.e. 1997, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2007. The results showed that between 1997 and 2007, the forests captured a total of 247 t carbon per ha, equivalent to a total sequestration of 53,180 t of carbon in the entire reclaimed area (215 ha).
Adinugroho, W.C. and Sidiyasa, K. (2006) Model Pendugaan Biomassa Pohon Mahoni (Swietenia macrophyla King) di Atas Permukaan Tanah, Jurnal penelitian Hutan dan Konservasi Alam, Vol. III, No. 1, pp. 103–117.
Banaticla, M.R.N., Sales, R.F. and Lasco, R.D. (2005) Biomass Equations for Tropical Tree Plantation Species Using Secondary Data from the Philippines, in ACIAR Smallholder Forestry Project – Redevelopment of a Timber Industry Following Extensive Land Clearing: Proceedings from the End-of-Project Workshop, S.R. Harrison, J.L. Herbohn, Suh, Jungho, Mangaoang, Eduardo and J. Vanclay (eds), Ormoc City, Philippines, 19–21 August, 2004, pp. 113–128.
Brower, J.E. and Zar, J.A. (1984) Field and Laboratory Methods for General Ecology, 2nd edition, Wm. C. Brown Pub, Dubuque, Iowa, 226 p.
Brown, S. (1997) Estimating Biomass and Biomass Change of Tropical Forests: a Primer, (FAO Forestry Paper – 134), FAO, Rome, viewed 12 May 2012,
Brown, S., Gillespie, A.J.R. and Lugo, A.E. (1989) Biomass Estimation Methods for Tropical Forests with Applications to Forest Inventory Data, Forest Science, The Society American Foresters, Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 881–902.
Burton, A.J. and Pregitzer, K.S. (2008) Measuring Forest Floor, Mineral Soil, and Root Carbon Stocks, Part IV, in Field Measurements for Forest Carbon Monitoring: A Landscape-Scale Approach, C.M. Hoover (ed), Springer Science + Business Media B.V. (2008), Chapter 10, 240 p.
Chojnacky, D.C. and Milton, M. (2008) Measuring Carbon in Shrubs, Part II, in Field Measurements for Forest Carbon Monitoring: A Landscape-Scale Approach, C.M. Hoover (ed), Springer Science + Business Media B.V. (2008), Chapter 5, 240 p.
Eggleston, S., Buendia, L., Miwa, K. and Tanabe, K. (eds) (2006) IPPC Guidlines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Vol. 4, Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use, The Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) for The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Hayama, Kanagawa, Japan, 83 p.
Harlow, W.M., Harrar, E.S., Hardin, J.W. and White, F.M. (1991) Textbook of Dendrology, 7th Edition, McGraw-Hill Inc., Singapore, 501 p.
Heiri, O., Lotter, A.F. and Lemcke, G. (2001) Loss on Ignition as a Method for Estimating Organic and Carbonate Content in Sediments: Reproducibility and Comparability of Results, Journal of Paleolimnology, Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, Vol. 25, pp. 101–110.
Hollinger, D.Y. (2008) Defining a Landscape-Scale Monitoring Tier for the North American Carbon Program, Part I, in Field Measurements for Forest Carbon Monitoring: A Landscape-Scale Approach, C.M. Hoover (ed), Springer Science + Business Media B.V. (2008), Chapter 1, 240 p.
Konen, M.E., Jacobs, P.M., Burras, C.L., Talaga, B.J. and Mason, J.A. (2002) Equations for Predicting Soil Organic Carbon Using Loss-On-Ignition for North Central U.S. Soils, Soil Science Society of America Journal, Vol. 66, pp. 1878–1881.
Krisnawati, H., Varis, E., Kallio, M. and Kanninen, M. (2011) Paraserienthes falcataria (L.) Nielsen: Ekologi, Silvikultur dan Produktivitas, Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor, Indonesia, 14 p.
Masripatin, N., Ginoga, K., Pari, G., Dharmawan, W.S., Siregar, C.A., Ari Wibowo, Puspasari, D., Utomo, A.S., Sakuntaladewi, N., Lugina, M., Indartik, Wulandari, W., Darmawan, S., Heryansah, I., Heriyanto, N.M., Siringoringo, H.H., Damayanti, R., Anggraeni, D., Krisnawati, H., Maryani, R., Apriyanto, D. and Subekti, B. (2010) Carbon Stocks of Various Types of Forest and Vegetation in Indonesia, Center for Climate Change and Policy Research and Development (Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perubahan Iklim dan Kebijakan), Bogor, Indonesia, 43 p.
McGroddy, M.E., Daufresne, T. and Hedin, L.O. (2004) Scaling of C:N:P stoichiometry in forests worldwide: Implications of terrestrial Redfield-type ratios, Ecology, Vol. 85(9), pp. 2390–2401.
Penman, J., Gytarsky, M., Hiraishi, T., Krug, T., Kruger, D., Riitta Pipatti, Buendia, L., Miwa, K., Ngara, T., Tanabe, K. and Wagner, F. (eds) (2003) Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry, IPCC National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, The Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) for The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Hayama, Kanagawa, Japan, 625 p.
Pollo, H.N., Sompie, D., Kojansow, J. and Mansur, H.I. (2011) Reclamation and Its Succession in the Used Mine Site of PT Newmont Minahasa Raya in Ratatotok, Southeast Minahasa – A Case Study, in Proceedings Sixth International Conference on Mine Closure (Mine Closure 2011), A.B. Fourie, M. Tibbett and A. Beersing (eds), 19–21 September 2011, Lake Louise, Canada, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, Vol. 1, pp. 281–290.
Scott, N.A. and Brown, S. (2008) Measuring the Decomposition of Down Dead-Wood, Part III, in Field Measurements for Forest Carbon Monitoring: A Landscape-Scale Approach, C.M. Hoover (ed), Springer Science + Business Media B.V. (2008), Chapter 9, 240 p.
Sutaryo, D. (2009) Penghitungan Biomassa: Sebuah Pengantar untuk Studi Karbon dan Perdagangan Karbon, Wetlands International Indonesia Programme, Bogor, 39 p.
Tasirin, J.S. (1994) The Role of Raspberry in Nutrient Cycling in a Successional Northern Hardwood Forest Ecosystem, Thesis, University of New Brunswick, Canada.
Tiepolo, G., Calmon, M. and Feretti, A.R. (2002) Measuring and Monitoring Carbon Stocks at the Guaraqueçaba Climate Action Project, Paraná, Brazil, International Symposium on Forest Carbon Sequestration and Monitoring, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, Extension Series, No. 153, pp. 98–115.