Authors: Simmons, JV


DOI https://doi.org/10.36487/ACG_rep/1308_0.6_Simmons

Cite As:
Simmons, JV 2013, 'Excavation control, management of blast damage, and quality control', in PM Dight (ed.), Slope Stability 2013: Proceedings of the 2013 International Symposium on Slope Stability in Open Pit Mining and Civil Engineering, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 91-112, https://doi.org/10.36487/ACG_rep/1308_0.6_Simmons

Download citation as:   ris   bibtex   endnote   text   Zotero


Abstract:
Implementation of slope design transfers well-intentioned concepts, technical expertise, and cost commitments to a reality that cannot be fully or reliably predicted. With the uncovering of real geological and operational conditions come observations, actions, and experiences which may mandate changes to design for a multitude of reasons. Within the hierarchy of risk management actions, design is near the highest level of control, and approved design will include acceptance of geological and geotechnical uncertainties. Excavation, blasting, and quality control are aspects of design implementation where intention becomes confronted by reality; choices of action take place within a risk management framework in real time against a background that may be dominated by uncertainties. Excavation control starts with consideration of survey methods and accuracy limits. Under some conditions, uncertainty in geometry may have a significant influence on outcomes of stability assessment, and this review offers a perspective based on risk management and quality control principles. When inspections are carried out it is necessary not just to identify materials, structure, and groundwater parameters but also to interpret and describe geotechnical behaviour type with respect to an accepted scheme that can guide risk management responses. An example is provided to illustrate the range of rock mass damage associated with different blast designs, with the view that blast damage can be more readily recognised and treated as a special case of excavation control. Quality control is discussed in terms of the gathering of evidence for updating estimates of likelihoods, and may range from simple visual inspection to complex, problem-driven measurements. Some examples are discussed and the overriding requirement to gather, check, and test evidence is emphasised. In conclusion, careful thought is required to resist the distorting aspects of modern communication tools on the timely communication of risk management information.

References:
Arefi, H., d’Angelo, P., Mayer, H. and Reinartz, P. (2009) Automatic generation of digital terrain models from Cartosat–1 Stereo Images, in Proceedings High-Resolution Earth Imaging for Geospatial Information, C. Heipke, K. Jacobsen, F. Rottensteiner and U. Sörgel (eds), 2–5 June 2009, Hannover, Germany, I Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 6 p.
Canbulat, I., Hoelle, J. and Emery, J. (2013) Risk management in open cut coal mines, International Journal of Mining Science and Technology, Elsevier, Vol. 23(3), viewed 26 June 2013, .
Cruden, D.M. and Varnes, D.J. (1996) Landslide Types and Processes, Chapter 3 in Landslides Investigation and Mitigation, A.K. Turner and R.L. Schuster (eds), Special Report 247, Transportation Research Board, National Academy Press, Washington, pp. 36–75.
Dunnicliffe, J. and Deere, D.U. (1991) Judgment in Geotechnical Engineering, The Professional Legacy of Ralph B. Peck, BiTech Publishers Ltd, Vancouver, 332 p.
Fowler, A. and Kadatskiy, V. (2011) Accuracy and error assessment of terrestrial, mobile, and airborne LiDAR in Proceedings, Annual Conference, American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 1–5 May 2011, Milwaukee, USA, American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Bethesda, 9 p.
Haneberg, W.H. (2008) Elevation errors in a LiDAR digital elevation model of West Seattle and their effects on slope stability calculations, R.L. Baum, J. Godt and L. Highland (eds), Landslides and Engineering Geology of the Greater Seattle Area, Washington, Geological Society of America Reviews in Engineering Geology, Geological Society of America, Vol. 20, pp. 55−65, preprint downloadable from www.haneberg.com, viewed 13 June 2013.
Hoelle, J. and Canbulet, I. (2012) A risk rating system for Anglo American’s open cut coal mines in Australia, in Proceedings 12th Coal Operators’ Conference, 16–17 February 2012, Wollongong, Australia, University of Wollongong and The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, pp. 371–377.
Hopkins, A. (1999) Managing Major Hazards, The Lessons of the Moura Mine Disaster, Allen & Unwin, Sydney, 150 p.
International Organization for Standardization (2008) International Standard ISO 9001:2005, Quality management systems – Requirements, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, viewed 2 June 2013, standards/management-standards/iso_9000.htm.
International Organization for Standardization (2009) International Standard ISO 31000:2009, Risk management – Principles and guidelines, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, viewed 2 June 2013, iso/home/standards/iso31000.htm.
Kahneman, D. (2011) Thinking, Fast and Slow, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York.
Kizil, U. and Tisor, L. (2011) Evaluation of RTK-GPS and Total Station for applications in land surveying, Journal of Earth Systems Sciences, Indian Academy of Sciences, Vol. 120, Number 2, pp. 215–221.
Larkin, B. and Green, D. (2012) CoalLog borehole data standard for the Australian coal industry, ACARP Project C21003, AusIMM, Carlton, viewed 23 June 2013, .
Lee, J.M., Park, J.Y. and Choi, J.Y. (2013) Evaluation of sub-aerial topographic surveying techniques using Total Station and RTK-GPS for applications in macrotidal sand beach environment, Journal of Coastal Research, Coastal Education & Research Foundation, Special Issue No.65, pp. 535–540.
Lin, L.S. (2004) Application of GPS RTK and Total Station System on Dynamic Monitoring Land Use, in Proceedings XX International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Congress, Technical Commission VII, 12–23 July 2004, Istanbul, Turkey, pp. 302–307.
Norheim, R.A., Queija, V.R. and Haugerud, R.A. (2002) Comparison of LIDAR and INSAR DEMs with dense ground control, in Proceedings, Esri International User Conference, 8–12 July 2002, San Diego, USA, Esri, Redlands, paper 0442, 9 p, viewed 4 June 2013, .
Novak, D. and Baltsavias, E. (2009) Orthoserv – quality assessment for orthorectified and co-registered satellite image products, in Proceedings High-Resolution Earth Imaging for Geospatial Information, C. Heipke, K. Jacobsen, F. Rottensteiner and U. Sörgel (eds), 2–5 June 2009, Hannover, Germany, International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 7 p.
Quality Systems Pty Ltd (2013) Quality Systems Pty Ltd, Brisbane, viewed 12 June 2013, .
Read, J. and Stacey, P. (2009) Guidelines for open pit slope design, CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.
Scott, A. (1996) Open Pit Blast Design, Monograph 1, Julius Kruschnitt Mineral Research Centre, The University of Queensland, 339 p.
Simmons, J.V. and Simpson, P.J. (2006) Composite failure mechanisms in coal measures rock masses – myths and reality, in Proceedings, International Symposium on Stability of Rock Slopes in Open Pit Mining and Civil Engineering, 3–6 April 2006, Cape Town, South Africa, South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Cape Town, pp. 31–49.
Simmons, J.V. and Simpson, P.J. (2007) Extension, stress and composite failure in bedded rock masses, in Proceedings International Symposium on Rock Slope Stability in Open Pit Mining and Civil Engineering (Slope07), Y. Potvin (ed), 12–14 September 2007, Perth, Australia, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 213–223.
Simmons, J., Maconochie, P., Larkin, B. and Green, D. (2013) CoalLog: the standard for collection recording storage and transfer of geological and geotechnical data for the Australian coal industry, in Proceedings 2013 Coal Operators’ Conference, 14–15 February 2013, Wollongong, Australia, University of Wollongong and The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, pp. 9–15.
Standards Australia (2012) Risk Management – Guidelines on Risk Assessment Techniques, Handbook 89–2012, SAI Global Limited, Sydney.
Stewart, I.E., Baynes, F.J. and Lee, I.K. (2002) The RTA Guide to Slope Risk Analysis Version 3.1., Australian Geomechanics, Australian Geomechanics Society, Vol. 37, Number 2, May 2002, pp. 115–147.
Williams, P., Floyd, J., Chitombo, G. and Maton, T. (2009) Design Implementation, Chapter 11, J. Read and P. Stacey (eds), Guidelines for Open Pit Slope Design, CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, pp. 265–326.




© Copyright 2022, Australian Centre for Geomechanics (ACG), The University of Western Australia. All rights reserved.
Please direct any queries or error reports to repository-acg@uwa.edu.au