Afana, A, Hunter, G, Davis, J, Rosser, NJ, Hardy, RJ & Williams, JG 2013, 'Integration of full waveform terrestrial laser scanners into a slope monitoring system', in PM Dight (ed.), Slope Stability 2013: Proceedings of the 2013 International Symposium on Slope Stability in Open Pit Mining and Civil Engineering
, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 897-909, https://doi.org/10.36487/ACG_rep/1308_62_Afana
Forecasting of the timing of slope failure has been widely modelled using strain-rate based approaches. Such techniques are reliant upon high-precision data on slope deformation, yet conventionally a trade-off between monitoring precision and spatial resolution has to be made in mine slope safety systems. Newly available full waveform terrestrial laser scanners (FW-TLS) have been shown capable of capturing detailed additional metrics of rock slope surfaces, which from sequential scans allow significantly reduced uncertainties in change detection. Innovatively, this approach obtains both geometric and radiometric target surface information which is suited to the measurement of very small scale deformation, whilst retaining the spatially rich detail of TLS point-clouds.
We present data captured using this new technology integrated into the slope safety monitoring system ‘SiteMonitor’, to explore the opportunities offered by this new technology in characterising actively failing rock slopes in new ways. Results presented highlight the ability to resolve surface features at a scale appropriate to precursory mass wasting and creep in unstable rock slopes. These findings open the possibility for a step-change in the integration of recent strain-rate based predictive models with the unprecedented level of combined precision and detail offered by newly available FW-TLS data.
Abellán, A., Calvet, J., Vilaplana, M. and Blanchard, J. (2010) Detection and spatial prediction of rockfalls by means of terrestrial laser scanner monitoring, Geomorphology, Vol. 119, pp. 162–171.
Abellán, A., Jaboyedoff, M. Oppikofer, T. and Vilaplana, J. (2009) Detection of millimetric deformation using a terrestrial laser scanner: experiment and application to a rockfall event, Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, Vol. 9, pp. 365–372.
Burrough, P.A. and McDonnell, R.A. (1998) Principles of geographical information systems, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 333 p.
Chauve, A., Mallet, C., Bretar, F., Durrieu, S., Pierrot Deseilligny, M. and Puech, W. (2007) Processing full-waveform lidar data: modelling raw signals, International Archives of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. 39 (Part 3/W52), Espoo, Finland, pp. 102–107.
Doneus, M. and Briese, C. (2006) Full-waveform airborne laser scanning as a tool for archaeological reconnaissance, BAR International Series, 1568, 99 p.
Ghosh, S., Günther, A., Carranza, E.J.M., van Westen, C.J. and Jetten, V.G. (2010) Rock slope instability assessment using spatially distributed structural orientation data in Darjeeling Himalaya (India), Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Vol. 35, pp. 1773−1792.
Günther, A. and Thiel, C. (2009) Combined rock slope stability and shallow landslide susceptibility assessment of the Jasmund cliff area (Rügen Island, Germany), Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 9, pp. 687–698.
Günther, A., Wienhöfer, J. and Konietzky, H. (2012) Automated mapping of rock slope geometry, kinematics and stability with RSSGIS, Natural hazards, Vol. 61, pp. 29–49.
Jaboyedoff, M., Oppikofer, T., Abellán, A., Derron, M.-H., Loye, A., Metzger, R. and Pedrazzini, A. (2012) Use of LiDAR in landslide investigations: a review, Natural hazards, Vol. 61, pp. 5–28.
Mallet, C. and Bretar, F. (2009) Full-waveform topographic lidar: State-of-the-art, ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Vol. 64, pp. 1–16.
Mallet, C., Bretar, F. and Soergel, U. (2008) Analysis of full-waveform lidar data for classification of urban areas, Photogrammetrie Fernerkundung Geoinformation, Vol. 5, pp. 337–349.
Meentemeyer, R.K. and Moody, A. (2000) Automated mapping of conformity between topographic and geological surfaces, Computers and Geosciences, Vol. 26, pp. 815–829.
Moore, I.D.G., Ladson, A.R. and Grayson, R.B. (1991) Digital Terrain Modelling: a review of Hydrological, Geomorphological, and Biological applications, Hydrological Processes, Vol. 5, pp. 3–30.
Oppikofer, T., Jaboyedoff, M., Blikra, L., Derron, M.H. and Metzger, R. (2009) Characterization and monitoring of the Aknes rockslide using terrestrial laser scanning, Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, Vol. 9, pp. 1003–1019.
Oppikofer, T., Jaboyedoff, M., Pedrazzini, A., Derron, M.H. and Blikra, L.H. (2011) Detailed DEM analysis of a rockslide scar to characterize the basal sliding surface of active rockslides, Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface (2003–2012), Vol. 116, F2.
Reitberger, J., Schnörr, C., Krzystek, P. and Stilla, U. (2009) 3D segmentation of single trees exploiting full waveform LiDAR data, ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Vol. 64, pp. 561–574.
Riley, S.J., DeGloria, S.D. and Elliot, R. (1999) A terrain ruggedness index that quantifies topographic heterogeneity, Intermountain Journal of Sciences, Vol. 5, pp. 23–27.
Rose, N.D. and Hungr, O. (2007) Forecasting potential slope failure in open pit mines–contingency planning and remediation, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, Vol. 44, pp. 308–320.
Rosser, N., Lim, M., Petley, D., Dunning, S. and Allison, R. (2007) Patterns of precursory rockfall prior to slope failure, Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, Vol. 112, F04014.
Selby, M.J. (2005) Hillslope Material and Processes, Oxford Press, Oxford, 451 p.
Slob, S., van Knapen, B., Hack, R., Turner, K. and Kemeny, J. (2005) Method for automated discontinuity analysis of rock slopes with three-dimensional laser scanning, Journal of the Transportation Research Board 1913, pp. 187–194.
Ullrich, A. and Pfennigbauer, M. (2011) Categorisation of full waveform data provided by laser scanning devices, in Proceedings SPIE 8186, G. Kamerman, O. Steinvall, G. Bishop, J. Gonglewski, K. Lewis, R. Hollins, and T. Merlet, (eds), 5–8 October 2011, Prague, Czech Republic, Electro-Optical Remote Sensing, Photonic Technologies, and Applications V, 818609,
Wagner, W. (2010) Radiometric calibration of small-footprint full-waveform airborne laser scanner measurements: Basic physical concepts, ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Vol. 65, pp. 505–513.
Wilson, J.P. (2012) Digital terrain modeling, Geomorphology, Vol. 137, pp. 107–121.