Mgumbwa, J & Nester, T 2014, 'Paste improvement at La Mancha’s Frog’s Leg underground mine', in Y Potvin & T Grice (eds), Mine Fill 2014: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium on Mining with Backfill
, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 281-294, https://doi.org/10.36487/ACG_rep/1404_22_Mgumbwa
La Mancha Resources Australia Pty Ltd’s Frog’s Leg Gold Mine is located approximately 20 km west of Kalgoorlie in Western Australia. The mine utilises long hole open stoping and cemented paste fill, to achieve full extraction of the orebody. The combined effects of high fines contents in the supplied reclaimed tailings, and very high water salinity, hampers the strength development and curing times of the paste fill, despite the high binder dosages. Given a decreasing gold price and a high operating cost environment, the need to identify areas where productivity and efficiency improvements can be made is paramount. Predominately due to the large volumes involved, paste backfill constitutes one of the largest costs to the underground operation, and therefore an area where even minor efficiency improvements can have a significant positive effect on mining costs. One of several improvement projects undertaken was to evaluate two paste additives, namely MM701 (supplied by BASF) and Acti-Gel® (supplied by Active Minerals) and their impact on paste flowability, compressive strengths, curing time and binder dosage rates.
Belem, T & Benzaazoua, M 2004, ‘An overview on the use of paste backfill technology as a ground support method in cut-and-fill mines’, in E Villaescusa & Y Potvin (eds), Proceeding of the Fifth International Symposium on Ground Support in Mining and Underground Construction, Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 637-50.
Belem, T & Benzaazoua, M 2008, ‘Design and Application of Underground Mine Paste Backfill Technology’, Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, vol. 26, issue 2, pp. 147-74.
Bellmann, F, Moser, B & Stark, J 2006, ‘Influence of sulfate solution concentration on the formation of gypsum in sulfate resistance test specimen’, Cement Concrete Research, vol. 36, pp. 358-63.
Benzaazoua, M, Belem, T & Bussière, B 2002, ‘Chemical factors that influence the performance of mine sulphidic paste backfill’, Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 32, pp. 1133-44.
Benzaazoua, M, Fall, M & Belem, T 2004, ‘A contribution to understanding the hardening process of cemented paste fill’, Minerals Engineering, vol. 17, 141-52.
Clayton, S, Grice, AG & Boger, DV 2003, ‘Analysis of the slump test for on-site yield stress measurement of mineral suspensions’, International Journal of Mineral Processing, vol. 70, pp. 3-21.
Fall, M, Benzaazoua, M & Ouellet, S 2004, ‘Effects of tailings properties on paste backfill performance’, in Z Aimin (ed.), Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Mining with Backfill, The Nonferrous Metal Society of China, Beijing, pp. 193-202.
Fall, M, Benzaazoua, M & Ouellet, S 2005, ‘Experimental characterization of the influence of tailings fineness and density on the quality of cemented paste backfill’, Minerals Engineering, vol. 18, pp. 41-4.
Grice, AG 1998, ‘Underground mining with backfill’, Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Summit – Mine Tailings Disposal Systems, Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Carlton, pp. 1-14.
Hasan, A, Suazo Fuentealba, GH & Fourie, AB 2013, ‘Full scale experiments on the effectiveness of a drainage system for cemented paste backfill’, in R Jewell, AB Fourie, J Caldwell & J Pimenta (eds), Proceedings of the 16th International Seminar on Paste and Thickened Tailings, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 379-92.
Hassan, F & Archibald, J 1998, Mine Backfill, Canadian Institute Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum, Westmount, Quebec, CD-ROM.
Henderson, A & Revell, MB 2005, 'Basic Mine Fill Materials', in Y Potvin, ED Thomas & AB Fourie (eds), Handbook on Mine Fill, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, Western Australia, pp. 13-20.
Henderson, A, Revell, MB, Landriault, DA & Coxon, J 2005, ‘Paste Fill’, in Y Potvin, ED Thomas & AB Fourie (eds), Handbook on Mine Fill, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, Western Australia, pp. 83-97.
Kesimal, A, Yilmaz, E & Ercikdi, B 2004, ‘Evaluation of paste backfill mixtures consisting of sulphide-rich mill tailings and varying cement contents’, Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 34, pp. 1817-22.
Kesimal, A, Yilmaz, E, Ercikdi, B, Alp, I & Deveci, H 2005, ‘Effect of properties of tailings and binder on the short-and long-term strength and stability of cemented paste backfill’, Materials Letters, vol. 59, pp. 3703-9.
Kuganathan, K 2005, ‘Geomechanics of Mine Fill’, in Y Potvin, ED Thomas & AB Fourie (eds), Handbook on Mine Fill, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, Western Australia, pp. 23-47.
Landriault, DA 1995, ‘Paste backfill mix design for Canadian underground hard rock mining’, in FP Hassani, & P Mottahed (eds), Proceedings of the 97th Annual General Meeting of the CIM Rock Mechanics and Strata Control Session, CD-ROM, Canadian Institute Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum, Westmount.
Laudriault, DA, Brown, RE & Counter, DB 2000, ‘Paste backfill study for deep mining at Kidd Creek’, CIM bulletin, vol. 93, pp. 156−161.
Landriault, DA 2001, ‘Backfill in underground mining’, in WA Hustrulid & RL Bullock (eds), Underground Mining Methods: Engineering Fundamentals and International Case Studies, Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Englewood, Colorado, pp. 601-14.
Li, T, Singh, U, Coxon, J, Grice, A & Sainsbury, D 2003, ‘Development and application of paste fill using dry tailings’, Proceedings International Seminar on Paste and Thickened Tailings, Melbourne, March, 2003.
Millette, D, Tannant, DD, Padrutt, A & Wang, C 2002, ‘Influence of admixtures on cemented backfill strength’, Mineral Resources Engineering, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 261-70.
Quanji, Z 2010, ‘Thixotropic Behaviour of Cement-Based Materials: Effect of Clay and Cement Types’, master thesis, Iowa State University.
Ouellet, J 2001, ‘Chemistry for paste backfill’, Course notes from 1st Noranda Paste Backfill College, St-Sauveur, Quebec.
Revell Resources Pty Ltd 2009, La Mancha Frogs Leg paste exposure stability and test work, unpublished internal report submitted to La Mancha Resources Australia Pty Ltd prepared by Revell Resources Pty Ltd, Western Australia.
Standards Australia 2005, Australian standard AS 12188.8.131.52-2005 Methods of testing soils for engineering purposes - Soil moisture content tests - Determination of the moisture content of a soil - Oven drying method (standard method), Standards Australia, Sydney.
Wang, C & Villaescusa, E 2001, ‘Influence of water salinity on the properties of cemented tailings backfill’, Mining Technology, vol. 110, issue 1, pp. 62-65.
Wang, K, Shah, SP, Grove, J, Taylor, P, Wiegand, P, Steffes, B, Lomboy, G, Quanji, Z, Gang, L & Tregger, N 2011, Self-Consolidating Concrete — Applications for Slip-Form Paving: Phase II, US department of transport, viewed 23 July 2013,
Yin, S, Wu, A, Hu, K, Wang, Y & Zhang, Y 2012, ‘The effect of solid components on the rheological and mechanical properties of cemented paste backfill’, Minerals Engineering, vol. 35, pp. 61-6.