Collins, DS, Toya, Y, Pinnock, I, Shumila, V & Hosseini, Z 2014, '3D velocity model with complex geology and voids for microseismic location and mechanism', in M Hudyma & Y Potvin (eds), Deep Mining 2014: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Deep and High Stress Mining
, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 681-688, https://doi.org/10.36487/ACG_rep/1410_48_Collins
A microseismic monitoring system provides a vital window into a rock mass to see where stress induced fracturing is occurring in relation to mining operations. A main factor for the accuracy of the microseismic locations is the velocity model assumed for the rock mass. The majority of mines that use microseismic systems use a single velocity model for location purposes which assumes the same elastic modulus properties throughout the volume. This study shows examples of event locations that were calculated using a velocity model that accounts for multiple complex shaped geological units each with their own properties. The method allows multiple voids to be added that could be air filled, brine filled, or cement paste back filled, thus mimicking mining and geotechnical operations such as stope mining, cave mining, solution mining, or underground cavern storage.
Going beyond the dots, microseismic systems provide an important way to understand the failure mechanics of the rock fracturing. With good data quality, each located event can be solved for the source mechanism (moment tensor) and interpreted in terms of whether the event is dominantly tensile opening, closing, or shear slip. The orientation of each event failed zone can be quantified providing useful information about the discrete fracture network (DFN). This paper provides examples of source mechanism solutions using a full 3D velocity model. It is shown that the ray path of each sensor does affect the source mechanism solution when comparing a single velocity model solution and a 3D velocity model solution.
Microseismic systems offer important daily information for mine operation, safety and planning. Improvements to the accuracy of seismic results by using enhanced processing methods and regular calibration, allow a mine to more confidently integrate seismic results with numerical models and make decisions. This is especially important as mines move to different excavation methods such as block caving and extend to greater depths and stresses.
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