Fawell, PD, Costine, AD & Grabsch, AF 2015, 'Why small-scale testing of reagents goes wrong', in R Jewell & AB Fourie (eds), Proceedings of the 18th International Seminar on Paste and Thickened Tailings
, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 153-165.
Small-scale cylinder or jar tests are routinely applied to establish the impact of polymer reagents that induce aggregation in mineral systems. Despite their value, such tests are often done poorly or under too narrow a range of conditions, which can lead to trends being either missed or wrongly interpreted. A number of common errors are discussed, together with strategies to maximise the practical value of the results obtained.
Besra, L, Sengupta, DK, Roy, SK & Ay, P 2002, ‘Studies on flocculation and dewatering of kaolin suspensions by anionic polyacrylamide flocculant in the presence of some surfactants’, International Journal of Mineral Processing, vol. 66,pp. 1-28.
Carissimi, E & Rubio, J 2015, ‘Polymer-bridging flocculation performance using turbulent pipe flow’, Minerals Engineering, vol. 70, pp. 20-25.
Caskey, JA & Primus, RJ 1986, ‘The effect of anionic polyacrylamide molecular-conformation and configuration on flocculation effectiveness’, Environmental Progress, vol. 5, pp. 98-103.
Chen, WJ 1998, ‘Effects of surface charge and shear during orthokinetic flocculation on the adsorption and sedimentation of kaolin suspensions in polyelectrolyte solutions’, Separation Science and Technology, vol. 33, pp. 569-590.
Clark, AQ, Herrington, TM & Petzold, JC 1990, ‘The flocculation of kaolin suspensions with anionic polyacrylamides of varying molar mass and anionic character’, Colloids and Surfaces, vol. 44, pp. 247-261.
Costine, A, Lester, D, Fawell, P & Chryss, A 2014, ‘Shear isn't mixing: how to build larger aggregates using chaotic advection for accelerated dewatering’, in RJ Jewell, AB Fourie, PS Wells & D van Zyl (eds), Proceedings of the 17th international seminar on paste and thickened tailings, InfoMine, Vancouver, paper no. 49.
de Kretser, R, Scales, PJ & Boger, DV 1997, ‘Improving clay-based tailings disposal: Case study on coal tailings’, AIChE Journal, vol. 43, pp. 1894-1903.
Dollimore, D & Horridge, TA 1973, ‘Dependence of flocculation behavior on China clay-polyacrylamide suspensions on suspension pH’, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 42, pp. 581-588.
Farrow, JB & Swift, JD 1996, ‘A new procedure for assessing the performance of flocculants’, International Journal of Mineral Processing, vol. 46, pp. 263-275.
Gagnon, MJ, Simard, G, Charette, A & Péloquin, G 2002, ‘Characterization of red mud aggregate populations generated under shear conditions’, CIM Bulletin, vol. 95, no. 1062, pp. 87-91.
Gladman, BR, Rudman, M & Scales, PJ 2010, ‘Experimental validation of a 1-D continuous thickening model using a pilot column’, Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 65, pp. 3937-3946.
Grabsch, AF, Fawell, PD, Adkins, SJ & Beveridge, A 2013, ‘How achieving a higher aggregate density through flocculant selection can impact upon polymer-bridging flocculation’, International Journal of Mineral Processing, vol. 124, pp. 83-94.
Gregory, J 2009, ‘Monitoring particle aggregation processes’, Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 147-48, pp. 109-123.
Heath, AR, Fawell, PD, Bahri, PA & Swift, JD 2002, ‘Estimating average particle size by focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM)’, Particle & Particle Systems Characterization, vol. 19, pp. 84-95.
Heath, AR, Bahri, PA, Fawell, PD & Farrow, JB 2006, ‘Polymer flocculation of calcite: Experimental results from turbulent pipe flow’, AIChE Journal, vol. 52, pp. 1284-1293.
Henderson, JM & Wheatley, AD 1987, ‘Factors effecting a loss of flocculation activity of polyacrylamide solutions: shear degradation, cation complexation, and solution ageing’, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 33, pp. 669-684.
Jones, F, Farrow, JB & van Bronswijk, W 1998, ‘Flocculation of hematite in synthetic Bayer liquors’, Colloids and Surfaces A - Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, vol. 135, pp. 183-192.
Lester, DR, Rudman, M & Metcalfe, G 2009, ‘Low Reynolds number scalar transport enhancement in viscous and non-Newtonian fluid’, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 51, pp. 655-664.
Lester, DR, Buscall, R, Stickland, AD & Scales, PJ 2014, ‘Wall adhesion and constitutive modeling of strong colloidal gels’, Journal of Rheology, vol. 58, pp. 1247-1276.
McFarlane, A, Yeap, KY, Bremmell, K & Addai-Mensah, J 2008, ‘The influence of flocculant adsorption kinetics on the dewaterability of kaolinite and smectite clay mineral dispersions’, Colloids and Surfaces A - Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, vol. 317, pp. 39-48.
Mizani, S, Soleimani, S & Simms, P 2013, ‘Effects of polymer dosage on dewaterability, rheology, and spreadability of polymer-amended mature fine tailings’, in RJ Jewell, AB Fourie, J Caldwell & J Pimenta (eds), Proceedings of the 16th international seminar on paste and thickened tailings, InfoMine, Vancouver, pp. 117-131.
Mohanarangam, K, Yang, W & Simic, K 2010, ‘Application of ultrasonic velocity profiler (UVP) in the minerals industry’, Proceedings of the 17th Australasian fluid mechanics conference, University of Auckland, Auckland, paper 164.
Mpofu, P, Addai-Mensah, J & Ralston, J 2003, ‘Investigation of the effect of polymer structure type on flocculation, rheology and dewatering behaviour of kaolinite dispersions’, International Journal of Mineral Processing, vol. 71, pp. 247-268.
Mpofu, P, Addai-Mensah, J & Ralston, J 2004, ‘Flocculation and dewatering behaviour of smectite dispersions: effect of polymer structure type’, Minerals Engineering, vol. 17, pp. 411-423.
Nguyen, TV, Farrow, JB, Smith J & Fawell, PD 2012, ‘Design and development of a novel thickener feedwell using computational fluid dynamics’, Journal of The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, vol. 112, pp. 939-948.
Ofori, P, Nguyen, AV, Firth, B, McNally, C & Ozdemir, O 2011, ‘Shear-induced floc structure changes for enhanced dewatering of coal preparation plant tailings’, Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 172, pp. 914-923.
Owen, AT, Fawell, PD, Swift, JD & Farrow, JB 2002, ‘The impact of polyacrylamide flocculant solution age on flocculation performance’, International Journal of Mineral Processing, vol. 67, pp. 123-144.
Owen, AT, Fawell, PD & Swift, JD 2007, ‘The preparation and ageing of acrylamide/acrylate copolymer flocculant solutions’, International Journal of Mineral Processing, vol. 84, pp. 3-14.
Peng, FF & Di, P 1994, ‘Effect of multivalent salts – calcium and aluminium on the flocculation of kaolin suspension with anionic polyacrylamide’, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 164, pp. 229-237.
Rey, PA 1988, ‘The effect of water chemistry on the performance of anionic polyacrylamide-based flocculants’, in BM Moudgil & BJ Scheiner (eds), Flocculation and dewatering, Engineering Foundation, New York, pp. 195-214.
Rulyov, NN, Korolyov, BY & Kovalchuk, NM 2006, ‘Application of ultra-flocculation for improving fine coal concentrate dewatering’, Coal preparation, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 17-32.
Sabah, E & Cengiz, I 2004, ‘An evaluation procedure for flocculation of coal preparation plant tailings’, Water Research, vol. 38, pp. 1542-1549.
Sabah, E & Erkan, ZE 2006, ‘Interaction mechanism of flocculants with coal waste slurry’, Fuel, vol. 85, pp. 350-359.
Scott, JP, Fawell, PD, Ralph, DE & Farrow, JB 1996, ‘The shear degradation of high molecular weight flocculant solutions’, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 62, pp. 2097-2106.
Tanguay, M, Fawell, P & Adkins, S 2014, ‘Modelling the impact of two different flocculants on the performance of a thickener feedwell’, Applied Mathematical Modelling, vol. 38, pp. 4262-4276.
Witham, MI, Grabsch, AF, Owen, AT & Fawell, PD 2012, ‘The effect of cations on the activity of anionic polyacrylamide flocculant solutions’, International Journal of Mineral Processing, vol. 114-117, pp. 51-62.
Yao, Y, van Tol, AF & van Paassen, LA 2012, ‘The effect of flocculant on the geotechnical properties of mature fine tailings: an experimental study, Proceedings of the 3rd international oil sands tailings conference, Edmonton, Alberta, pp. 391-398.
Zhu, Y, Wu, J, Shepherd, IS, Coghill, M, Vagias, N & Elkin, K 2000, ‘An automated measurement technique for slurry settling tests’, Minerals Engineering, vol. 13, pp. 765-772.