Authors: Indraratna, B; Balasubramaniam, AS; Poulos, H; Rujikiatkamjorn, C; Ameratunga, J; Perera, D


Cite As:
Indraratna, B, Balasubramaniam, AS, Poulos, H, Rujikiatkamjorn, C, Ameratunga, J & Perera, D 2015, 'Monitoring of consolidation behaviour of marine clay treated with vacuum and surcharge at the Port of Brisbane', in PM Dight (ed.), FMGM 2015: Proceedings of the Ninth Symposium on Field Measurements in Geomechanics, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 647-655,

Download citation as:   ris   bibtex   endnote   text   Zotero

Over the past decade, the application of vacuum preloading for stabilising reclaimed soil and other low-lying estuarine soils has become popular in Australia. Its cost effectiveness is a governing factor in view of the reduced consolidation time to achieve a relatively high degree of consolidation. Due to demand in trade activities at the Port of Brisbane, new port facilities have been constructed on reclaimed land. A vacuum and fill surcharge, in conjunction with prefabricated vertical drains, was selected to accelerate consolidation time of the thick layers of subsoil. A performance comparison of a combined vacuum and fill surcharge loading system with a standard surcharge fill highlights the clear advantages of vacuum consolidation. Field data demonstrate how the embankment performed during construction. This paper also assesses the relative performance of the two contrasting preloading systems (i.e. vacuum and non-vacuum system).

Ameratunga, J, Boyle, P, De Bok, C & Bamunawita, C 2010, ‘Port of Brisbane (PoB) clay characteristics and use of wick drains to improve deep soft clay deposits’, Proceedings of the 17th Southeast Asian Geotechnical Conference (17SEAGS), pp. 116-119.
Chai, JC, Carter, JP & Hayashi, S 2005, ‘Ground deformation induced by vacuum consolidation’, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, vol. 131, no. 12, pp. 1552-1561.
Chu, J, Yan, SW & Yang, H 2000, ‘Soil improvement by the vacuum preloading method for an oil storage station, Geotechnique, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 625-632.
Holtz, RD, Jamiolkowski, M, Lancellotta, R & Pedroni, S 1991, ‘Prefabricated vertical drains: design and performance’, in CIRIA ground engineering report: ground improvement, Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd, Oxford.
Indraratna, B & Redana, IW 2000, ‘Numerical modelling of vertical drains with smear and well resistance installed in soft clay’, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, vol. 37, pp. 132-145.
Indraratna, B, Rujikiatkamjorn, C, Ameratunga, J & Boyle, P 2011, ‘Performance and prediction of vacuum combined surcharge consolidation at Port of Brisbane’, Journal of Geotechnical & Geoenvironmental Engineering, vol. 137, no. 11,
pp. 1009-1018.
Indraratna, B, Sathananthan, I, Rujikiatkamjorn, C & Balasubramaniam, AS 2005, ‘Analytical and numerical modelling of soft soil stabilized by PVD incorporating vacuum preloading’, International Journal of Geomechanics, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 114-124.
Mohamedelhassan, E & Shang, JQ 2002, ‘Vacuum and surcharge combined one-dimensional consolidation of clay soils’, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, vol. 39, pp. 1126-1138.
Rujikiatkamjorn, C, Indraratna, B & Chu, J 2008, ‘2D and 3D numerical modeling of combined surcharge and vacuum preloading with vertical drains’, International Journal of Geomechanics, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 144-156.
Sathananthan, I, Indraratna, B & Rujikiatkamjorn, C 2008, ‘The evaluation of smear zone extent surrounding mandrel driven vertical drains using the cavity expansion theory’, International Journal of Geomechanics, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 355-365.
Shang, JQ, Tang, M & Miao, Z 1998, ‘Vacuum preloading consolidation of reclaimed land: a case study’, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, vol. 35, pp. 740-749.
Terzaghi, K, Peck, RB & Mesri, G 1996, Soil mechanics in engineering practice, 3rd edn, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY.
Yin, J-H & Graham, J 1994, ‘Equivalent times and one-dimensional elastic visco-plastic modelling of time-dependent stress-strain behaviour of clays’, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, vol. 31, pp. 42-52.

© Copyright 2024, Australian Centre for Geomechanics (ACG), The University of Western Australia. All rights reserved.
View copyright/legal information
Please direct any queries or error reports to