Authors: Pakalnis, R
Editors: Potvin, Y
Conference: International Seminar on Design Methods in Underground Mining, 17-19 November, Perth
Published: Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Proceedings of the International Seminar on Design Methods in Underground Mining, pp.37-56, Perth
Empirical methods are the most widely used design techniques employed within the mining industry largely due to their success in the design of mine structures. This paper summarises the applications/implementation of empirical design methods that the author has compiled/coordinated over the past thirty years with over 150 underground mining operations contributing either through consulting, research, assessment, database, verification and/or implementation. These design guidelines have been implemented throughout the world in association with researchers, mine engineers, operators and legislators to arrive at design methodologies based upon past practice and future implementation and assessment in order to ensure a safe and cost-effective mining operation. This paper summarises design curves that have been developed at the University of British Columbia over the past thirty years with the methodology for design being a common thread for all the tools presented which requires the operator to address stress, structure and the rock mass.
Pakalnis, R 2015, 'Empirical design methods in practice', in Y Potvin (ed.), Proceedings of the International Seminar on Design Methods in Underground Mining
, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 37-56.
Beauchamp, L 2006, Ground support manual, Mines and Aggregates Safety and Health Association, North Bay, ON.
Bieniawski, ZT 1976, ‘Rock mass classification in rock engineering’, in ZT Bieniawski (ed.), Exploration for Rock Engineering: Proceedings of the Symposium on Exploration for Rock Engineering, A.A. Balkema, Lisse, pp. 97-106.
Brady, T, Martin, L & Pakalnis, R 2005, ‘Empirical approaches for opening design in weak rock masses’, Mining Technology, vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 13-20.
Caceres, C 2011, ‘Quantifying the effect of rock mass quality on peak particle velocity for underground drift development’ PhD thesis, University of British Columbia.
Clark, L 1998, ‘Minimizing dilution in open stope mining with focus on stope design and narrow vein longhole blasting’ Master of Science thesis, University of British Columbia.
Deere, DU & Deere, DW 1988, ‘The rock quality designation (RQD) index in practice’, in I Kirkaldie (ed.), Rock classification systems for engineering purposes, American Society for Testing and Materials, Ann Arbor, MI, pp. 91-101.
Grimstad, E & Barton, N 1993, ‘Updating the Q-system for NMT’, in C Kompen, SL Opsahl & SL Berg (eds), Proceedings of the International Symposium on Sprayed Concrete, Norwegian Concrete Association, 21 p.
Hughes, P 2014, ‘Underhand cut and fill cemented paste backfill sill beams’ PhD thesis, University of British Columbia.
International Society for Rock Mechanics 1978, ‘Commission on standardization of laboratory and field tests: suggested methods for the quantitative description of discontinuities in rock masses’, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences and Geomechanics Abstracts, vol. 15, pp. 319-368.
Lang, B 1994, ‘Span design for entry type excavations’ Master of Science thesis, University of British Columbia.
Laubscher, DH 1977, ‘Geomechanics classification of jointed rock masses – mining applications’, Transactions of the Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, vol. 86, pp. 1-8.
Lunder, P 1994, ‘Hard rock pillar strength estimation: an applied empirical approach’ Master of Science thesis, University of British Columbia.
MacLaughlin, MM, Pakalnis, R & Brady, TM 2005, ‘A distinct element parametric study of failure modes around an underground opening in rock masses of varying quality’, Proceedings of the 40th US Symposium on Rock Mechanics, American Rock Mechanics Association, Minneapolis, 10 p.
Mathews, KE, Hoek, E, Wyllie, DC & Stewart, S 1981, Prediction of stable excavation spans for mining at depths below 1,000 metres in hard rock / Golder Associates, CANMET Library & Documentation Services Division, Vancouver.
Nickson, S 1992, ‘Cable support guidelines for underground hard rock mine operations’ Master of Science thesis, University of British Columbia.
Pakalnis, R 2002, ‘Empirical design methods–UBC Geo-mechanics update’, in R Hammah, W Bawden, J Curran & M Telesnicki (eds), Proceedings of the 5th North American Rock Mechanics Symposium and the 17th Tunnelling Association of Canada Conference (NARMS-TAC 2002), Mining and tunneling innovation and opportunity, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, 12 p.
Pakalnis, R 2008, ‘Methodology towards ground support’, Strategic versus tactical approaches in mining, Quebec, Canada, University of Laval, ACG, University of Witwatersrand, 12 p.
Pakalnis, R, Brady, T, Blake, W & MacLaughlin, M 2006, ‘Design spans – underhand cut and fill mining’, Bulletin of the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, vol. 99, no. 1094, 7 p.
Pakalnis, R, Brady, T, Hughes, P & McLaughlin, M 2007, ‘Design guidelines for underground mining operations in weak rock masses’, Proceedings of the 1st Canada-US Rock Mechanics Symposium — International Workshop on Rock Mass Classification in Underground Mining, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Atlanta, GA, 12 p.
Pakalnis, R, Roworth, M, Caceres, C, Martin, L, Seymour, B & Lourence, P 2010, ‘Ground support methodology employing shotcrete for underground mines’, Proceedings of the SME Annual Meeting and Exhibit, Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration, Englewood, CO, preprint no. 10-013, pp. 55-58.
Potvin, Y 1988, ‘Empirical open stope design in Canada’ PhD thesis, University of British Columbia.
Robertson, AM 1988, ‘Estimating weak rock strength’, Proceedings of the SME Annual Meeting, Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration, Englewood, CO, preprint no. 88-145, 5 p.
Roworth, M 2013, ‘Understanding the effect of freezing on rock mass behaviour as applied to the cigar lake mining method’ Master of Science thesis, University of British Columbia.
Wang, J, Pakalnis, R, Milne, D & Lang, B 2000, ‘Empirical underground entry-type excavation span design modification’, Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Conference of the Canadian Geotechnical Society, The Canadian Geotechnical Society, Richmond, BC.