Authors: Frouz, J
Show More
Purchase Paper

Citation as:   ris   bibtex   endnote   text   Zotero


Abstract:
We used chronosequences of post-mining sites combined with long-term observation of individual sites to compare soil and ecosystem development in post-mining sites undergoing unassisted ecosystem development, and sites reclaimed by various reclamation technologies in different climatic conditions. Using these approaches that allow comparison of individual trials over long periods of time is essential, as in many cases early stage ecosystem development may not be a good indicator of long-term trends. Here, the overview of major mechanisms that determine soil formation and ecosystem development in various climatic conditions are given. We also explore soil formation under various restoration technologies. In suitable climatic conditions, on no toxic overburden, spontaneous processes have the potential to produce valuable ecosystems. In many types of landscapes, namely those with intensive agriculture such as the many parts of Europe, spontaneous recovery of post-mining sites brings a unique opportunity to restore natural habitats. Post-mining landscapes have very high potential for soil carbon sequestration, and in suitable situations, soil formation can be rapid, resulting in development of 10 cm deep A horizon in several decades. Studies of spontaneous processes can be useful for improving reclamation technologies, namely the selection of proper target vegetation and reconsidering or modification of some operations during reclamation.

Keywords:

Citation:
Frouz, J 2016, 'What lesson for mine closure we can learn from unassisted soil and ecosystem development', in AB Fourie & M Tibbett (eds), Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Mine Closure, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 25-34.

References:
Ashby, WC 1997, ‘Soil ripping and herbicides enhance tree and shrub restoration on stripmines’, Restoration Ecology, vol. 5, pp. 169–177.
Ashby, WC 1998, ‘Reclamation with trees pre- and post-SMCRA in southern Illinois’, International Journal of Surface Mining, Reclamation and Environment, vol. 12, pp. 117–121.
Boruvka, L, Kozak, J, Muhlhanselova, M, Donatova, H, Nikodem, A, Nemecek, K & Drabek, O 2012, ‘Effect of covering with natural topsoil as a reclamation measure on brown-coal mining dumpsites’, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, vol. 113, pp. 118–123.
Bowen, CK, Schuman, GE, Olson, RA & Ingram, J 2005, ‘Influence of topsoil depth on plant and soil attributes of 24-year-old reclaimed mined lands’, Arid Land Research and Management, vol. 19, pp. 267–284.
Boyer, S & Wratten, SD 2010, ‘The potential of earthworms to restore ecosystem services after opencast mining - A review’, Basic and Applied Ecology, vol. 11, pp. 196–203.
Boyer, S, Wratten, S, Pizey, M & Weber, P 2010, ‘Impact of soil stockpiling and mining rehabilitation on earthworm communities’, Pedobiologia, vol. 54, pp. 99–102.
Bradshaw, A 1993, ‘The reconstruction of ecosystems’, Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 20, pp. 1–17.
Bradshaw, A 1997, ‘Restoration of mined lands - using natural processes’, Ecological Engineering, vol. 8, pp. 255–269.
Broring, U & Wiegleb, G 2005, ‘Soil zoology II: Colonization, distribution, and abundance of terrestrial Heteroptera in open landscapes of former brown coal mining areas’, Ecological Engineering, vol. 24, pp. 135–147.
Brown, JH & Gibson, AC, 1983, Biogeography, C. V. Mosby, Saint Louis.
De Deyn, GB, Raaijmakers, CE, Zoomer, HR, Berg, MP, de Ruiter, PC, Verhoef, HA, Bezemer, TM & van der Putten, WH 2003, ‘Soil invertebrate fauna enhances grassland succession and diversity’, Nature, vol. 422, pp. 711–713.
Frouz, J & Franklin, JA 2015, ‘Vegetation and soil development in planted pine and naturally regenerated hardwood stands decades after mining‘, Journal of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation.
Frouz, J, Pizl, V & Tajovsky, K 2007, ‘The effect of earthworms and other saprophagous macrofauna on soil microstructure in reclaimed and un-reclaimed post-mining sites in Central Europe‘, European Journal of Soil Biology, vol. 43, pp. S184–S189.
Frouz, J, Kalčík, J & Velichová, V 2011, ‘Factors causing spatial heterogeneity in soil properties, plant cover, and soil fauna in a nonreclaimed post-mining site’, Ecological Engineering, vol. 37, pp. 1910–1913.
Frouz, J, Keplin, B, Pižl, V, Tajovský, K, Starý, J, Lukešová, A, Nováková, A, Balík, V, Háněl, L, Materna, J, Düker, C, Chalupský, J, Rusek, J & Heinkele, T 2001, ‘Soil biota and upper soil layers development in two contrasting post-mining chronosequences‘, Ecological Engeneering, vol. 17, pp. 275–284.
Frouz, J, Kristufek, V, Bastl, J, Kalcik, J & Vankova, H 2005, ‘Determination of toxicity of spoil substrates after brown coal mining using a laboratory reproduction test with Enchytraeus crypticus (Oligochaeta)’, Water Air and Soil Pollution, vol. 162, pp. 37–47.
Frouz, J, Prach, K, Pižl, V, Háněl, L, Starý, J, Tajovský, K, Materna, J, Balik, V, Kalčík, J & Řehounková, K 2008, ‘Interactions between soil development, vegetation and soil fauna during spontaneous succession in post mining sites’, European Journal of Soil Biology, vol. 44, pp. 109–121.
Frouz, J, Pizl, V, Cienciala, E & Kalcik, J 2009, ‘Carbon storage in post-mining forest soil, the role of tree biomass and soil bioturbation’, Biogeochemistry, vol. 94, pp. 111–121.
Frouz, J, Liveckova, M, Albrechtova, J, Chronakova, A, Cajthaml, T, Pizl, V, Hanel, L, Stary, J, Baldrian, P, Lhotakova, Z, Simackova, H & Cepakova, S 2013a, ‘Is the effect of trees on soil properties mediated by soil fauna? A case study from post-mining sites’, Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 309, pp. 87–95.
Frouz, J, Thebault, E, Pizl, V, Adl, S, Cajthaml, T, Baldrian, P, Hanel, L, Stary, J, Tajovsky, K, Materna, J, Novakova, A & de Ruiter, PC 2013b, ‘Soil Food Web Changes during Spontaneous Succession at Post Mining Sites: A Possible Ecosystem Engineering Effect on Food Web Organization?’, PLOS ONE, vol. 8, p. e79694.
Frouz, J, Jilkova, V, Cajthaml, T, Pizl, V, Tajovsky, K, Hanel, L, Buresova, A, Simackova, H, Kolarikova, K, Franklin, J, Nawrot, J, Groninger, JW & Stahl, PD 2013c, ‘Soil biota in post-mining sites along a climatic gradient in the USA: Simple communities in shortgrass prairie recover faster than complex communities in tallgrass prairie and forest’, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 67, pp. 212–225.
Frouz, J, Dvorščík, P, Vávrová, A, Doušoová, O, Kadochová, Š & Matějíček, L 2015a, ‘Development of canopy cover and woody vegetation biomass on reclaimed and unreclaimed post-mining sites’, Ecological Engineering, vol. 84, pp. 233–239.
Frouz, J, Voborilova, V, Janousova, I, Kadochova, S & Matejicek, L 2015b, ‘Spontaneous establishment of late successional tree species English oak (Quercus robur) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) at reclaimed alder plantation and unreclaimed post mining sites’, Ecological Engineering, vol. 77, pp. 1–8.
Glenn-Lewin, DC, Peet, RK & Veblen, TT 1992, Plant Succession. Theory and Prediction, Chapman and Hall London.
Ingram LJ, Schuman, GE, Stahl, PD, Spackman, LK 2005, ‘Microbial Respiration and Organic Carbon Indicate Nutrient Cycling Recovery in Reclaimed Soils‘, Soil Science Society American Journal, vol. 69, pp. 1737–1745.
Jener, H, Janssenmommen, JPM 1993, ‘Duckweet Lemna minor as a tool for testing toxicity of coal residues and polluted sediments‘, Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 25, pp. 3–11.
Kříbek, B, Strnad, M, Boháček, Z, Sýkorová, I, Čejka, J Sobalík, Z 1998, ‘Geochemistry of Miocene lacustrine sediments from the Sokolov Coal Basin (Czech Republic)‘, International Journal of Coal Geology, vol. 37, pp. 207–233.
Kuráž, V, Frouz, J, Kuráž, M, Mako, A, Šustr, V, Cejpek, J, Romanov, OV & Abakumov, EV 2012, ‘Changes in some physical properties of soils in the chronosequence of self-overgrown dumps of the Sokolov quarry-dump complex, Czechia’, Eurasian Soil Science, vol. 45, pp. 266–272.
Ma, Y, Dickinson, NM, Wong, MH 2003, ‘Interactions between earthworms, trees, soil nutrition and metal mobility in amended Pb/Zn mine tailings from Guangdong, China‘, Soil Biology & Biochemistry, vol. 35 pp. 1369–1379.
Makulec, G 2002, ‘The role of Lumbricus rubellus Hoffm. in determining biotic and abiotic properties of peat soils’, Polish Journal of Ecology, vol. 50, pp. 301–339.
Mudrák, O, Frouz, J, Velichova, V 2010, ‘Understory vegetation in reclaimed and unreclaimed post-mining forest stands‘, Ecological Engineering, vol. 36, pp. 783–790.
Pietrzykowski, M 2008, ‘Soil and plant communities development and ecological effectiveness of reclamation on a sand mine cast‘, Journal of Forest Science, vol. 54, pp. 554–565.
Ponge, JF 2003, ‘Humus forms in terrestrial ecosystems: a framework to biodiversity‘, Soil Biology & Biochemistry, vol. 35, pp. 935–945.
Prach, K 1987, ‘Succession of vegetation on dumps from strip coal mining, N.W. Bohemia, Czechoslovakia’, Folia Geobotancia, vol. 22, pp. 339–354.
Prach, K, Bartha, S, Joyce, CHB, Pysek, P, Van Diggelen, R & Wiegleb, G 2001, ‘The role of spontaneous vegetation succession in ecosystem restoration: A perspective’, Applied Vegetation Science, vol. 4, pp. 111–114.
Rohoskova, M, Penizek, V & Boruvka, L 2006, ‘Study of anthropogenic soils on a reclaimed dumpsite and their variability by geostatistical methods’, Soil Water Research, vol. 1, pp. 72–78.
Rydgren, K, Halvorsen, R, Auestad, I & Hamre, LN 2013, ‘Ecological design is more important than compensatory mitigation for successful restoration of alpine spoil heaps’, Restoration Ecology, vol. 21, pp. 17–25.
Sample, BE & Suter, GW 2002, ‘Screening evaluation of the ecological risks to terrestrial wildlife associated with a coal ash disposal site’, Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, vol. 8, pp. 637–656.
Scheu, S, Parkinson, D 1994, ‘Effects of invasion of an aspen forest (Canada) by Dendrobaena octaedra (Lumbricidae) on plant growth‘, Ecology, vol. 75, pp. 2348–2361.
Scullion, J Malik, A 2000, ‘Earthworm activity affecting organic matter, aggregation and microbial activity in soils restored after opencast mining for coal’, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 32, pp. 119–126.
Skousen, JG, Johnson, C & Garbutt K 1994, ‘Natural revegetation of 15 abandoned mine land sites in West Virginia’, Journal of Environmental Quality, 23:1224–1230.
Sourkova, M, Frouz, J & Santruckova, H 2005, ‘Accumulation of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus during soil formation on alder spoil heaps after brown-coal mining, near Sokolov (Czech Republic)’, Geoderma, vol. 124, pp. 203–214.
Spain, AV, Tibbett, M, Hinz, DA, Ludwig, JA & Tongway, DT 2015, ‘The mining-restoration system and ecosystem development following bauxite mining in a biodiverse environment of the seasonally dry tropics of Australia’, in M Tibbett (ed.), Mining in Ecologically Sensitive Landscapes, CRC press, pp 159–227.
Thompson, L, Thomas, CD, Radley, JMA, Williamson, S & Lawton, JH 1993, ‘The effect of earthworms and snails in a simple plant community’, Oecologia, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 171–178.
Tibbett, M 2010, ‘Large-scale mine site restoration of Australian eucalypt forests after bauxite mining: soil management and ecosystem development’, in LC Batty & KB Hallberg (eds), Ecology of Industrial Pollution, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p. 309–326.
Topp, W, Simon, M, Kautz, G, Dworschak, U, Nicolini, F & Pruckner, S 2001, ‘Soil fauna of a reclaimed lignite open-cast mine of the Rhineland: improvement of soil quality by surface pattern’, Ecological Engineering, vol. 17, pp. 307–322.
Tropek, R, Kadlec, T, Karesova, P, Spitzer, L, Kocarek, P, Malenovsky, I, Banar, P, Tuf, IH, Hejda, M & Konvicka, M 2010, ‘Spontaneous succession in limestone quarries as an effective restoration tool for endangered arthropods and plants’, Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 47, pp. 139–147.
Tropek, R, Kadlec, T, Hejda, M, Kocarek, P, Skuhrovec, J, Malenovsky, I, Vodka, S, Spitzer, L, Banarh, P & Konvicka, M 2012, ‘Technical reclamations are wasting the conservation potential of post-mining sites. A case study of black coal spoil dumps’, Ecological Engineering, vol. 43, pp. 13–18.
Vindušková, O, Frouz, J 2013, ‘Soil carbon accumulation after open-cast coal and oil shale mining in Northern Hemisphere: a quantitative review‘, Environmental Earth Sciences, vol. 69, pp. 1685–1698.
Wick, AF, Ingram, LJ & Stahl, PD 2009, ‘Aggregate and organic matter dynamics in reclaimed soils as indicated by stable carbon isotopes’, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 41, pp. 201–209.




© Copyright 2017, Australian Centre for Geomechanics (ACG), The University of Western Australia. All rights reserved.
Please direct any queries to or error reports to repository-acg@uwa.edu.au