Authors: Humphries, RN
Editors: Fourie, AB; Tibbett, M
Conference: Mine Closure 2016, 15–17 March, Perth
Published: Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Mine Closure, pp.35-46, Perth
Ecosystem Function Analysis/Landscape Function Analysis (LFA/EFA) is a long established and well received science based monitoring and assessment technique for rehabilitated mines sites in Australia. It provides keystone evidence for the re-establishment of ecosystem function in the form of soil condition across a range of mine substrates and climatic conditions.
LFA/EFA, in its current form is less concerned with subsequent ecosystem type and development in terms of vegetation composition and structural formation by which communities are recognised and characterised. Similarly, LFA/EFA is not concerned with their condition and, in particular, life-cycle states and dynamics which constitute the key foundation of sustainable ecosystems.
The purpose of this paper is to consider whether there is scope for extending the LFA/EFA methodology for assessing revegetation success and ecosystem sustainability. Having examined the methodology and the ability to integrate an index-based assessment of composition, structure and condition, it is concluded that the LFA/EFA methodology can be extended. Hence, it is recommended that the suggested modifications are considered further and developed as necessary to enhance the current LFA/EFA methodology and also to meet biodiversity enhancement expectations.
Humphries, RN 2016, 'Extended ecosystem function analysis — the next step for mine rehabilitation appraisals', in AB Fourie & M Tibbett (eds), Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Mine Closure
, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 35-46.
Bradshaw, AD & Chadwick, MJ 1980, The Restoration of Land: The ecology and reclamation of derelict and degraded land, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
Carstairs, I 2007, The Yorkshire River Derwent: Moments in time, Halsgrove Discover Series, Wellington.
Chadwick, MJ & Goodman, GT (eds) 1975, The Ecology of Resource Degradation and Renewal, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
Department for Manufacturing, Innovation, Trade, Resources and Energy 2013, Minerals Regulatory Guidelines MG19: Guidelines for data entry and reporting of landscape function analysis, South Australian Government, Adelaide.
Department of Environment and Heritage Protection 2014, Guidance Resource Activities: Rehabilitation requirements for mining resource activities, Queensland Government, Brisbane.
Department of Mines and Petroleum and the Environmental Protection Agency 2011, Guidelines for Preparing Mine Closure Plans, Government of Western Australia, Perth.
Department of the Environment and Water Resources 2007, Australia’s native vegetation: a summary of Australia’s major vegetation groups, Australian Government, Canberra.
DnA Environmental 2013, 2012 Ecological Monitoring Report – Bulga Coal Complex, Bulga Surface Operations Pty Ltd & Bulga Underground Operations Pty Ltd.
DnA Environmental 2014, 2013 Rehabilitation Monitoring Report – Northparkes Mines, North Mining Limited.
Doley, D, Audet, P & Mulligan, DR 2012, ‘Examining the Australian context for post-mined land rehabilitation: reconciling a paradigm for the development of natural and novel ecosystems amongst post-disturbance landscapes’, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, vol. 163, pp. 85–93.
EBS Ecology 2013, Kanmantoo Mine LFA Monitoring – Autumn 2013, Hillgrove Resources.
Erskine, PD & Fletcher, AT 2013, ‘Novel ecosystems created by coal mines in central Queensland’s Bowen Basin’, Ecological Processes, vol. 2, p. 33.
Erskine, PD, Fletcher, AT & Seaborn, B 2013, ‘Opportunities and constraints of functional assessment of mined land rehabilitation’, in M Tibbett, AB Fourie & C Digby, Mine Closure 2013: Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Mine Closure, Eden Project, Cornwall, UK, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 345–354.
Eyre, TJ, Kelly, AL & Neldner, VJ 2011, Method for the Establishment and Survey of Reference Sites for BioCondition. Version 2.0, Department of Environment and Resource Management, Biodiversity and Ecological Sciences Unit, Brisbane.
Fortescue 2014, Desktop Study of Rehabilitation Strategies in the Pilbara – Christmas Creek Approvals, Fortescue Mining Group.
Glencore 2014, BAAL BONE Underground: 2014 Biodiversity and Land Management Plan.
Grant, CD, Ward, SC & Morley, SC 2007, ‘Return of ecosystem function to restored bauxite mines in Western Australia’, Restoration Ecology, vol. 15, 4 (supplement), pp. S94–S103.
Gravina, AJ, McKenna, P & Glenn, V 2011, ‘Evaluating the success of mineral sand mine rehabilitation on North Stradbroke Island, Queensland: comparisons with reference eucalypt communities’, in AH Arthington, TJ Page, CW Rose & S Raghu (eds), Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland: A Place of Sandhills: Ecology, Hydrogeomorphology and Management of Queensland’s Dune Islands, vol. 117, Royal Society of Queensland, St Lucia, pp. 419–435.
Grigg, AH & Grant, CD 2009, ‘Overstorey growth responses to thinning, burning and fertiliser in 10-13-year-old rehabilitated jarrah (Eucalyptus marginate) forest after bauxite mining in south-western Australia’, Australian Forestry, vol. 72, (2), pp. 80–86.
Haagner, ASH, Kellner, K & Tongway, DJ 2008, ‘Enhancing conventional rehabilitation monitoring in South Africa by adding landscape function characteristics,’ in AB Fourie, M Tibbett, IM Weiersbye & PJ Dye (eds), Third International Conference on Mine Closure, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 809–820.
Holdgate, MW & Woodman MJ (eds) 1978, The Breakdown and Restoration of Ecosystems, Plenum Press, New York.
Humphries, RN 2000, ‘Biodiversity: Curse or Opportunity?’, Mining Quarrying & Recycling, vol. 29, (10), pp. 26–29.
Humphries, RN 2001, ‘Biodiversity: Approaches to diversity’, Mining Quarrying & Recycling, vol. 30, (1), pp. 33–37.
Humphries, RN 2013a, ‘Case Study: The contribution of active surface mines in the conservation of lichen communities in the South Wales Coalfield, United Kingdom’, Journal American Society of Mining and Reclamation, vol. 2 (1), pp. 80–98.
Humphries, RN 2013b, ‘Understanding and delivery of the components of structure, diversity, and function in the restoration of ecosystems on mined land: working towards a practical methodology’, Journal American Society of Mining and Reclamation, vol. 2, (2), pp. 1–31.
Humphries, RN 2014, ‘Why reinvent the wheel when there are established methodologies to aid the design and assessment of restored natural ecosystems on mined land?’, in Life of Mine 2014 Conference, Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Carlton, Victoria, pp. 675–692.
Humphries, RN 2016, ‘Some lessons from long term monitoring of forest rehabilitation at three surface mine complexes in Australia’, Journal American Society of Mining and Reclamation, vol. 5, (1), in press.
Humphries, RN & Rowell, TA 1994, The Establishment and Maintenance of Vegetation on Colliery Spoils, British Coal Corporation, Eastwood.
Humphries, RN & Tibbett, M 2015, ‘Does the concept of novel ecosystems have a place in mine closure and rehabilitation?’, in AB Fourie, M Tibbett, KG Mercer & D van Zyl (eds), Tenth International Conference on Mine Closure, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, p. 11.
Humphries, N, Lunn, J & Benyon, P 2014, ‘Establishment of meadow foxtail-great burnet meadows (MG4) on former pasture at South Grange Farm, in the East Riding of Yorkshire’, The Naturalist, vol. 139, pp. 197–209.
Humphries, RN, Wessemann, H, Benyon, PR & Peace, S 1998, ‘Assessing the effects of mine subsidence on an internationally important wetland site’, in D Throgmorton, J Nawrot, J Mead, J Galetovic & W Joseph (eds), Proceedings of 15th Annual National Meeting of the American Society for Surface Mining & Reclamation, St Louis, USA, p. 446.
Jasper, DA, Veneklaas, EJ, Nichol, OG & Tongway, DJ 2006, ‘Indicators of success in mine site restoration in tropical moist forest ecosystems,’ in A Fourie & M Tibbett (eds), Proceedings First International Seminar on Mine Closure, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 719–730.
Joint Nature Conservation Committee 2004, Common Standards Monitoring Guidance for Lowland Grasslands, viewed 15 August 2015, http://Joint
Nature Conservation Committee.defra.gov.uk/PDF/CSM_lowland_grassland.pdf
Koch, JM 2007, ‘Restoring a jarrah forest understorey vegetation after bauxite mining in Western Australia’, Restoration Ecology, vol. 15, 4 (supplement), pp. S26–S39.
Lacy, HWB, File, T & Biggs, B 2008, ‘Ecosystem Function Analysis: Measuring and monitoring for mine closure and completion in Australia and abroad – 1994 to 2008’, in AB Fourie, M Tibbett, IM Weiersbye & PJ Dye (eds), Third International Conference on Mine Closure, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, p. 321–333.
Ludwig, JA & Tongway, DJ 1992, ‘Monitoring the condition of Australian arid lands: linked plant-soil indicators’, in DH McKenzie, DE Hyatt and VJ McDonald (eds), Ecological Indicators, Elsevier Press, Essex, pp. 765–772.
Ludwig, JA & Tongway, DJ 1995, ‘Spatial organisation of landscapes and its function in semi-arid woodlands’, Australian Landscape Ecology, vol. 10, pp. 51–63.
Maestre, FT & Puche, MD 2009, ‘Indices based on surface indicators predict soil functioning in Mediterranean semi-arid steppes’, Applied Soil Ecology, vol. 41, pp. 342–350.
Mulligan, DR, Gillespie, MJ, Gravina, AJ & Curry, NA 2006a, ‘An Assessment of Direct Revegetation Strategy on the Tailings Storage Facility at Kidston Gold Mine, North Queensland, Australia’, in AB Fourie & M Tibbett (eds), Proceedings First International Seminar on Mine Closure, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 371–381.
Mulligan, DR, Scougall, J, Williams, DJ, Nichols, O, Tibbett M, Lindbeck K, Loch, R, Allan, J, Grun, W, Farrell, C & Benbow, R 2006b, Leading Practice Sustainable Development for the Mining Industry: Mine Rehabilitation, Department of Industry Tourism and Resources, Canberra.
Mustapha, A 2013, Assessment of Rehabilitated Surface Mine Lands in Anglogold Ashanti, Obuasi. MSc Thesis, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.
Neldner, VJ & Ngugi, M 2014, ‘Application of the BioCondition assessment framework to mine rehabilitation’, Ecological Management & Restoration, vol. 15, 2, pp. 158–161.
Pauw, MJ 2011, Monitoring Ecological Rehabilitation on Coastal Mineral Sands in Namaqualand, South Africa, MSc Thesis, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.
Randall, J 2004, ‘Landscape Function Analysis: A tool for monitoring mine-site rehabilitation success’, MESA Journal, vol. 35, pp. 24–27.
Rodwell, JS 2006, National Vegetation Classification: user’s handbook, Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough.
Smith, P & Nichols, O 2011, ‘Development and assessment of rehabilitation criteria for high dune mineral sands mining on North Stradbroke Island’, in AH Arthington, TJ Page, CW Rose & S Raghu (eds), Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, A Place of Sandhills: Ecology, Hydrogeomorphology and Management of Queensland’s Dune Islands, Royal Society of Queensland, St Lucia, vol. 117, pp. 347–363.
Spain, AV, Hinz, DA, Ludwig, JA, Tibbett, M & Tongway, DJ 2006, ‘Mine closure and ecosystem development – Alcan Gove Bauxite mine, Northern Territory, Australia’, in A Fourie & M Tibbett (eds), Proceedings First International Seminar on Mine Closure, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 299–308.
Tibbett, M 2010, ‘Large-scale mine site restoration of Australian eucalypt forests after bauxite mining: soils management and ecosystem development’, in Batty LC & KB Hallberg, Ecology of Industrial Pollution, Cambridge University Press, pp. 309–326.
Tongway, DJ 1994, Rangeland Soil Condition Assessment Manual, CSIRO, Melbourne, pp. 309–326.
Tongway, D & Hindley, N 2000, Landscape Function Analysis: Methods for monitoring and assessing landscapes, with special reference to mine sites and rangelands, CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, Canberra.
Tongway, D & Hindley, N 2003, Indicators of Ecosystem Rehabilitation Success: Stage Two – Verification of EFA Indicators. Final Report for the Australian Centre for Mining Environmental Research, CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, Canberra.
Tongway, DJ & Ludwig, JA 2006, ‘Assessment of landscape function as an information source for mine closure,’ in A Fourie & M Tibbett (eds), Proceedings First International Seminar on Mine Closure, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 21–29.
Tongway, DJ & Ludwig, JA 2011, Restoring Disturbed Landscapes: putting principles into practice, Island Press, Washington.
Tongway, DJ & Smith, EL 1989, ‘Soil surface features as indicators of rangeland site productivity’, Australian Rangeland Journal, vol. 11, pp. 15–20.
Tongway, DJ, Hindley, NL, Ludwig, JA, Kearns, AJ & Barnett, G 1997, ‘Early indicators of ecosystem rehabilitation on selected minesites’, in Demonstrating Environmental Excellence 97: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Environmental Workshop, Adelaide, Minerals Council of Australia, Dickson.
Wali, MK (ed.) 1979, Ecology and Coal Resource Development: 2 Volumes, Pergamon Press, New York.