Loch, RJ 2016, 'Function and performance targets in ecological rehabilitation ', in AB Fourie & M Tibbett (eds), Mine Closure 2016: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Mine Closure
, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 545-554, https://doi.org/10.36487/ACG_rep/1608_40_Loch
This paper considers, from the view of a rehabilitation practitioner, approaches to establishing a sustainable ecosystem that may reasonably approximate some target vegetation assemblage. Broadly, the target system needs to be defined not only in terms of species assemblages, but also in terms of key soil attributes; some of which may be relatively constant and able to be established when revegetation works are carried out. However, other soil attributes may rely on plant growth for their development and modification, and the role of vegetation in providing essential services to the developing ecosystem is fundamental to long term ecosystem sustainability. This paper demonstrates how runoff/erosion and water balance models could be used to provide quantitative short- and longer-term targets for the management and assessment of rehabilitation progress and success.
Keywords: sustainability landscape function rehabilitation
Carroll, C & Tucker, A 2000, ‘Effects of pasture cover on soil erosion and water quality on central Queensland coal mine rehabilitation’, Tropical Grasslands, vol. 34, pp. 254–262.
Carroll, C, Merton, L & Berger, P 2000, ‘Impact of vegetative cover and slope on runoff, erosion, and water quality for field plots on a range of soil and spoil materials on central Queensland coal mines’, Australian Journal of Soil Research, vol. 38, pp. 313–327.
Clements, FE 1916, Plant Succession: An Analysis of the Development of Vegetation, Publication 242, Carnegie Institute of Washington, Washington, DC.
Eldridge, DJ, Zaady, E, & Shachak, M 2002, ‘Microphytic crusts, shrub patches and water harvesting in the Negev Desert: the Shikim system’, Landscape Ecology, vol. 17, pp. 587–597.
Howard, E, Shemeld, J, & Loch, R 2010, ‘Ramelius Resources’ Wattle Dam Project: Achieving bond reduction through leading practice,’ Goldfields Environmental Management Group 2010 Workshop.
Isbell, RF 1962, Soils and vegetation of the Brigalow Lands, Eastern Australia, Soils and Land Use Series No. 43. CSIRO:Melbourne.
Kato, H, Onda, Y, Tanaka, Y, & Asano, M 2009, ‘Field measurement of infiltration rate using an oscillating nozzle rainfall simulator in the cold, semiarid grassland of Mongolia’, Catena, vol. 76, pp. 173–181.
Koch, JM 1987, ‘Nitrogen accumulation in a rehabilitated bauxite mined area in the Darling Range, Western Australia’, Australian Forestry Research, vol. 17, pp. 59–72.
Landres, PB, Morgan, P & Swanson, FJ 1999, ‘Overview of the use of natural variability concepts in managing ecological systems', Ecological Applications, vol. 9, pp. 1179–1188.
Laughlin, DC 2014, ‘Applying trait-based models to achieve functional targets for theory-driven ecological restoration’, Ecology Letters, vol. 17, pp. 771–784.
Littleboy, M, Sachan, RC, Smith, GD, & Cogle, AL 1996, ‘Soil management and production of Alfisols in the semi arid tropics. II. Deriving USDA curve numbers from rainfall simulator data’, Australian Journal of Soil Research, vol. 34, pp. 103–111.
Loch, RJ 2000a, ‘Using rainfall simulation to guide planning and management of rehabilitated areas: I. Experimental methods and results from a study at the NorthParkes mine’, Land Degradation and Development, vol. 11, pp. 221–240.
Loch, RJ 2000b, ‘Effects of vegetation cover on runoff and erosion under simulated rain and overland flow on a rehabilitated site on the Meandu Mine, Tarong’, Australian Journal of Soil Research, vol. 38, pp. 299–312.
Loch, RJ 2010, Sustainable landscape design for coal mine rehabilitation, ACARP Project C18024, report published 1/05/2010.
Loch, RJ & Foley, JL 1994, ‘Measurement of aggregate breakdown under rain: comparison with tests of water stability and relationships with field measurements of infiltration’, Australian Journal of Soil Research, vol. 32, pp. 701–720.
Loch, RJ & Lowe, SM 2008, ‘A logical framework for design, construction, and rehabilitation of minesite waste rock dumps’, A Fourie (ed), Proceedings of the First International Seminar on the Management of Rock Dumps, Stockpiles, and Heap Leach Pads, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp 257–265.
Loch, RJ & Orange, DN 1997, ‘Changes in some properties of topsoil at Tarong Coal – Meandu Mine coalmine with time since rehabilitation’, Australian Journal of Soil Research, vol. 35, pp. 777–784.
NSW DECCW (New South Wales Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water) 2010, Brigalow within the Brigalow Belt South, Nandewar and Darling Riverine Plains bioregions, NSW DECCW.
Schwenke, GD, Ayres, L, Mulligan, DR, & Bell, LC 2000, ‘Soil stripping and replacement for the rehabilitation bauxite-mined land at Weipa. II. Soil organic matter dynamics in mine chronosequences’, Australian Journal of Soil Research, vol. 38, pp. 371–393.
Squires, H, Priest, M, Sluiter, I, & Loch R 2012, ‘Leading practice waste dump rehabilitation at the Ginkgo mineral sands mine’, in AB Fourie and M Tibbett (eds), Mine Closure 2012, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth.
Tolmie, PE, Silburn, DM, & Biggs, AJW 2011, ‘Deep drainage and soil salt loads in the Queensland Murray–Darling Basin using soil chloride: comparison of land uses’, Soil Research, vol. 49, pp. 408–423.
Ward, SC 2000, ‘Soil development on rehabilitated bauxite mines in south-west Australia’, Australian Journal of Soil Research, vol. 38, pp. 453–64.
Ward, SC & Pickersgill, GE 1985, ‘Nutrient distribution in two eucalypt plantations growing on rehabilitated bauxite mines’, Australian Journal of Ecology, vol. 10, pp. 111–124.
Ward, SC, Koch, JM & Nichols, OG 1990, ‘Bauxite mine rehabilitation in the Darling Range, Western Australia’, in Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia, vol. 16, pp. 557–565.
Westman, WE 1978, ‘Inputs and cycling of mineral nutrients in a coastal subtropical eucalypt forest’, Journal of Ecology, vol. 66, pp. 513–531.
Whittaker, RH 1953, ‘A consideration of climax theory: the climax as a population and pattern’, Ecological Monographs, vol. 23, pp. 41–78.
Yee Yet, JS & Silburn, DM 2003, Deep drainage estimates under a range of land uses in the QMDB using water balance modelling, Department of Natural Resources and Mines, Queensland, QNRM03021.