Olivier, G 2017, 'Inferring subtle stress changes related to blasting and large seismic events in mines using ambient noise', in J Wesseloo (ed.), Deep Mining 2017: Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Deep and High Stress Mining
, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 233-246, https://doi.org/10.36487/ACG_rep/1704_15_Olivier
Over the last decade, using ambient seismic noise correlations has been widely adopted in crustal seismology to image and monitor the subsurface. The method relies on the reconstruction of the seismic Green’s function between sensors, effectively turning one station in to a virtual active source. Since this process is repeatable, subtle changes in seismic velocity, attenuation and anisotropy can be measured over time. In some settings, these measurements can be made on an hourly (or even shorter) basis. To use this method routinely in underground mines, it is important to determine the cause of velocity variations in the absence of large dynamic stress perturbations (such as blasts). It also is important to calibrate the seismic velocity changes in terms of known stress changes so the effect of mining activities can be quantified in units that can be used by geotechnical engineers. The results presented here indicate that atmospheric air pressure changes can have a measurable influence on the long term seismic velocity variations at depth in the absence of large dynamic stress perturbations. This influence enabled me to determine the sensitivity of the relative velocity changes to stress, where a value of 3.2 × 10−6 %∕Pa was found. This calibration essentially enables me to turn each sensor pair in an underground mine into a stress meter, which in turn enabled me to infer the subtle change in static stress after a blast. The static stress change was only visible after the non-linear behaviour (damage and relaxation) had subsided five days after the blast. This new method can be used by geotechnical engineers to monitor the evolution of stress and to assess seismic hazard in conjunction with conventional microseismic methods.
Keywords: passive seismic, ambient noise, seismic monitoring
Aoki, Y 2015, ‘Monitoring temporal changes of seismic properties’, Frontiers in Earth Science, vol. 3, no. 42, article 42.
Ben-Zion, Y & Leary, P 1986, ‘Thermoelastic strain in a half-space covered by unconsolidated material’, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol. 76, pp. 1447–1460.
Birch, F 1961, ‘The velocity of compressional waves in rocks to 10 kilobars: 2’, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 66 no. 7,
Boschi, L & Weemstra, C 2015, ‘Stationary-phase integrals in the cross-correlation of ambient noise’, Reviews of Geophysics, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 411–451.
Brenguier, F, Campillo, M, Hadziioannou, C, Shapiro, N, Nadeau, R & Larose, E 2008, ‘Postseismic relaxation along the San Andreas fault at Parkfield from continuous seismological observations’, Science, vol. 321, pp. 1478–1481.
Brenguier, F, Campillo, M, Takeda, T, Aoki, Y, Shapiro, N, Briand, X, Emoto, K & Miyake, H 2014, ‘Mapping pressurized volcanic fluids from induced crustal seismic velocity drops’, Science, vol. 345, no. 6,192, pp. 80–82.
Brenguier, F, Clarke, D, Aoki, Y, Shapiro, N, Campillo, M & Ferrazzini, V 2011, ‘Monitoring volcanoes using seismic noise correlations’, Comptes Rendus Geoscience, vol. 343, pp. 633–638.
Campillo, M & Paul, A 2003, ‘Long-range correlations in the diffuse seismic coda’, Science, vol. 299,
, pp. 547–549.
Cheng, X, Niu, F & Wang, B 2010, ‘Coseismic velocity change in the rupture zone of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake observed from ambient seismic noise’, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol. 100, no. 5B, pp. 2539–2550.
Claerbout, JF 1968, ‘Synthesis of a layered medium from its acoustic transmission response’, Geophysics, vol. 33, pp. 264–269.
Clarke, D, Zaccarelli, L, Shapiro, N & Brenguier, F 2011, ‘Assessment of resolution and accuracy of the moving window cross spectral technique for monitoring crustal temporal variations using ambient seismic noise’, Geophysical Journal International, vol. 1,365, pp. 867–882.
Colombi, A, Chaput, J, Brenguier, F, Hillers, G, Roux, P & Campillo, M 2014, ‘On the temporal stability of the coda of ambient noise correlations’, Comptes Rendus Geoscience, vol. 346, no. 11, pp. 307–316.
Dales, P, Audet, P & Olivier, G 2016, ‘A novel seismic source detection and location algorithm implemented to improve the construction of seismic Green's functions from ambient noise in mines’, American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting Abstracts 1, 2566.
Daskalakis, E, Evangelidis, CP, Garnier, J, Melis, NS, Papanicolaou, G, Tsogka, C 2016, ‘Robust seismic velocity change estimation using ambient noise recordings’, Geophysical Journal International, vol. 205, no. 3, pp. 1926–1936.
Derode, A, Larose, E, Campillo, M & Fink, M 2003, ‘How to estimate the Green’s function for a heterogeneous medium between two passive sensors?’, Applied Physics Letters, vol. 83, pp. 3054–3056.
Duvall, T, D’silva, S, Jefferies, S, Harvey, J & Schou, J 1996, ‘Downflows under sunspots detected by helioseismic tomography’, Nature, vol. 379, no. 6562, pp. 235–237.
Eberhart-Phillips, D, Han, D-H & Zoback, MD 1989, ‘Empirical relationships among seismic velocity, effective pressure, porosity, and clay content in sandstone’, Geophysics, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 82–89.
Fairhurst, C 2003, ‘Stress estimation in rock: a brief history and review’, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 957–973.
Fazio, TD, Aki, L & Alba, K 1973, ‘Solid earth tide and observed change in the in situ seismic velocity’, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 78, pp. 1319–1322.
Froment, B, Campillo, M, Roux, P, Gouédard, P, Verdel, A & Weaver, RL 2010, ‘Estimation of the effect of nonisotropically distributed energy on the apparent arrival time in correlations’, Geophysics, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. SA85–SA93.
Grêt, A, Snieder, R & Özbay, U 2006, ‘Monitoring in situ stress changes in a mining environment with coda wave interferometry’, Geophysical Journal International, vol. 167, no. 2, pp. 504–508.
Hillers, G, Ben-Zion, Y, Campillo, M & Zigone, D 2015, ‘Seasonal variations of seismic velocities in the san jacinto fault area observed with ambient seismic noise’, Geophysical Journal International, vol. 202, no. 2, pp. 920–932.
Huang, J, Reyes-Montes, J & Young, R 2013, ‘Passive three-dimensional microseismic imaging for mining-induced rock-mass degradation’, RapidMiner: Data Mining Use Cases and Business Analytics Applications, Chapman & Hall/CRC Press, pp. 135.
Johnson, P & Sutin, A 2005, ‘Slow dynamics and anomalous nonlinear fast dynamics in diverse solids’, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 124–130.
Larose, E & Hall, S 2009, ‘Monitoring stress related velocity variation in concrete with a 2× 10- 5 relative resolution using diffuse ultrasound’, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 125, no. 4, pp. 1853–1856.
Leary, P, Malin, P, Phinney, R, Brocher, T & Voncolln, R 1979, ‘Systematic monitoring of millisecond travel time variations near Palmdale, California’, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth (1978–2012), vol. 84, no. (B2), pp. 659–666.
Lecocq, T, Caudron C & Brenguier, F 2014, ‘MSNoise, a Python package for monitoring seismic velocity changes using ambient seismic noise’, Seismological Research Letters, vol. 85,
, pp. 715–726
Lobkis, O & Weaver, R 2001 ‘On the emergence of the Green’s function in the correlation of a diffuse field’, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 110, pp. 311–317.
Lockner, D, Walsh, J & Byerlee, J 1977, ‘Changes in seismic velocity and attenuation during deformation of granite’, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 82, no. 33, pp. 5374–5378.
Lucente, FP, De Gori, P, Margheriti, L, Piccinini, D, Di Bona, M, Chiarabba, C & Agostinetti, NP 2010, ‘Temporal variation of seismic velocity and anisotropy before the 2009 mw 6.3 L’aquila earthquake, Italy’, Geology, vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 1015–1018.
Lyakhovsky, V, Hamiel, Y, Ampuero, J-P & Ben-Zion, Y 2009, ‘Non-linear damage rheology and wave resonance in rocks’, Geophysical Journal International, vol. 178, no. 2, pp. 910–920.
Matsumoto, K, Sato, T, Takanezawa, T & Ooe, M 2001, ‘GOTIC2: A program for computation of oceanic tidal loading effect’, Journal of the Geodetic Society of Japan, vol. 47,
, pp. 243–248.
Maxwell, S & Young, R 1992, ‘Sequential velocity imaging and microseismic monitoring of mining-induced stress change’, Pure and Applied Geophysics, vol. 139, no. 3–4, pp. 421–447.
Meier, U, Shapiro, NM & Brenguier, F 2010, ‘Detecting seasonal variations in seismic velocities within Los Angeles basin from correlations of ambient seismic noise’, Geophysical Journal International, vol. 181, no. 2, pp. 985–996.
Mendecki, AJ 1997, Seismic monitoring in mines, Springer Science & Business Media, Netherlands.
Mjachkin, VI, Brace, WF, Sobolev, GA & Dieterich, JH 1975, ‘Two models for earthquake forerunners’, in M Wyss (ed), Earthquake Prediction and Rock Mechanics, Springer Basel AG, Basel, Switzerland, pp. 169–181.
Murnaghan, FD 1951, Finite Deformation of an Elastic Solid, Dover Publications Inc., Mineola, New York.
Nakata, N, Chang, JP, Lawrence, JF & Boué, P 2015, ‘Body wave extraction and tomography at Long Beach, California, with ambientnoise interferometry’, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol. 120, no. 2, pp. 1159–1173.
Niu, F, Silver, PG, Daley, TM, Cheng, X & Majer, EL 2008, ‘Preseismic velocity changes observed from active source monitoring at the Parkfield SAFOD drill site’, Nature, vol. 454, no. 7,201, pp. 204–208.
Nur, A 1971, ‘Effects of stress on velocity anisotropy in rocks with cracks’, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 76, no. 8,
Nur, A & Simmons, G 1969, ‘Stress-induced velocity anisotropy in rock: An experimental study’, Journal of Geophysical Research,
vol. 74, no. 27, pp. 6667–6674.
O’Connell, RJ & Budiansky, B 1974, ‘Seismic velocities in dry and saturated cracked solids’, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 79, no. 35, pp. 5412–5426.
Olivier, G, Brenguier, F, Campillo, M, Lynch, R & Roux, P 2015a,’ Body-wave reconstruction from ambient seismic noise correlations in an underground mine’, Geophysics, vol. 80, no. 3,
, pp. KS11–KS25.
Olivier, G, Brenguier, F, Campillo, M, Roux, P, Shapiro, N & Lynch, R 2015b, ‘Investigation of coseismic and postseismic processes using in situ measurements of seismic velocity variations in an underground mine’, Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 42,
, pp. 9261–9269.
Olivier, G & Brenguier, F 2016, ‘Interpreting seismic velocity changes observed with ambient seismic noise correlations’, Interpretation, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. SJ77–SJ85.
Patanè, D, Barberi, G, Cocina, O, De Gori, P & Chiarabba, C 2006, ‘Time-resolved seismic tomography detects magma intrusions at Mount Etna, Science, vol. 313, no. 5,788, pp. 821–823.
Poupinet, G, Ellsworth, WL & Frechet, J 1984, ‘Monitoring velocity variations in the crust using earthquake doublets: An application to the Calaveras Fault, California’, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol. 89, no. B7, pp. 5719–5731.
Reasonberg, P & Aki, K 1974, ‘A precise, continuous measurement of seismic velocity for monitoring in situ stress’, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 79, pp. 399–406.
Riemer, K & Durrheim, R 2011, ‘Mining seismicity in the Witwatersrand Basin: monitoring, mechanisms and mitigation strategies in perspective’, Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 250–259.
Shapiro, NM & Campillo, M 2004, ‘Emergence of broadband Rayleigh waves from correlations of the ambient seismic noise’, Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 31, no. 7, L07614.
Silver, PG, Daley, TM, Niu, F & Majer, EL 2007, ‘Active source monitoring of cross-well seismic travel time for stress-induced changes’, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol. 97, no. 1B, pp. 281–293.
Snieder, R 2004, ‘Extracting the Green’s function from the correlation of coda waves: A derivation based on stationary phase’, Physics Review E, vol. 69, 046610.
Snieder, R 2006, ‘The theory of coda wave interferometry’, Pure and Applied Geophysics, vol. 163, no. 2, pp. 455–473.
Snieder, R & Hagerty, M 2004, ‘Monitoring change in volcanic interiors using coda wave interferometry: Application to Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica’, Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 31, no. 9, L09608.
Taira, T, Brenguier, F & Kong, Q 2015, ‘Ambient noise based monitoring of seismic velocity changes associated with the 2014 mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake’, Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 42, no.17, pp. 6997–7004.
Tsai, VC 2011, ‘A model for seasonal changes in gps positions and seismic wave speeds due to thermoelastic and hydrologic variations’, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth (1978–2012), vol. 116, no. B4.
Verdon, JP, Angus, DA, Michael Kendall, J & Hall, SA 2008, ‘The effect of microstructure and nonlinear stress on anisotropic seismic velocities’, Geophysics, vol. 73, no. (4), pp. D41–D51.
Wapenaar, K 2004, ‘Retrieving the elastodynamic Green’s function of an arbitrary inhomogeneous medium by cross-correlation’, Physics Review Letters, vol. 93, 254301.
Wegler, U, Nakahara, H, Sens-Schönfelder, C, Korn, M & Shiomi, K 2009, ‘Sudden drop of seismic velocity after the 2004 mw 6.6 midNiigata earthquake, Japan, observed with passive image interferometry’, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 114, no. B6.
Westman, E, Luxbacher, K & Schafrik, S 2012, ‘Passive seismic tomography for three-dimensional time-lapse imaging of mininginduced rock mass changes’, The Leading Edge, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 338–345.
Whitcomb, JH, Garmany, JD & Anderson, DL 1973, ‘Earthquake prediction: Variation of seismic velocities before the San Francisco earthquake’, Science, vol. 180, no. 4086, pp. 632–635.
Yamamura, K, Sano, O, Utada, H, Takei, Y & Nakao, S 2003, ‘Long-term observation of in situ seismic velocity and attenuation’, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 108, pp. 2317–2331.