Authors: Rajmeny, PK; Vakili, A
Show More
Download Paper
Open access courtesy of:

Citation as:   ris   bibtex   endnote   text   Zotero

Numerical modelling is increasingly being used to evaluate ground stability and to assist in the longterm planning of mining operations. However, selection of appropriate constitutive material behaviour and input parameters for the rock mass is still debated amongst the rock mechanics community. A case study of a hard rock mine practising sublevel open stoping has been simulated using 3D finite difference method (FLAC3D). The mine was modelled using four types of constitutive material models — Mohr–Coulomb with post-peak cohesionsoftening/frictionsoftening, bi-linear Mohr–Coulomb with post-peak cohesionsoftening/frictionsoftening, Mohr–Coulomb with post-peak cohesionsoftening/frictionhardening and the improved unified constitutive model (IUCM). The outcome of all approaches has been compared with measured ground performance. The comparison revealed that the numerical model using the IUCM provides the most realistic match to the observations in the mine including the failure of the crown pillars. Keywords: high stress, numerical back analysis, constitutive model

Keywords: high stress, numerical back analysis, constitutive model

Rajmeny, PK & Vakili, A 2017, 'Three-dimensional inelastic numerical back-analysis of observed rock mass response to mining in an Indian mine under high-stress conditions', in J Wesseloo (ed.), Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Deep and High Stress Mining, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 329-342.

Barton, N, 2013, ‘Shear strength criteria for rock, rock joints, rockfill and rock masses: Problems and some solutions’, Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 249–261.
Barton, N, Pandey, SK 2011, ‘Numerical modeling of two stoping methods in two Indian mines using degradation of c and mobilization of phi based on Q-parameters’, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 1095–1112.
Bieniawski, ZT 1989, Engineering Rock Mass Classifications: A Complete Manual for Engineers and Geologists in Mining, Civil, and Petroleum Engineering, John Wiley & Sons.
Brown, ET 2008, ‘Estimating the mechanical properties of rock masses’, in Y Potvin, J Carter, A Dyskin & R Jeffrey (eds), Proceedings of the 1st Southern Hemisphere International Rock Mechanics Symposium: SHIRMS, vol. 1, 16–18 September 2008, Perth, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 3–21.
Castro, L, McCreath, D & Oliver, P 1996, ‘Rock mass damage initiation around the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory Cavern’, Proceedings of the 2nd North American Rock Mechanics Symposium, vol. 2, Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 1589–1595.
Diederichs, MS 2000, Instability of Hard Rockmasses: The Role of Tensile Damage and Relaxation, PhD thesis, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, pp. 566.
Falmagne, V 2002, Quantification of rock mass degradation using microseismic monitoring and application for mine design, PhD thesis, Queen's University, Kingston, pp. 424.
Grimstad, E & Bhasin, R 1996, ‘Stress strength relationships and stability in hard rock’, Proceedings of the Conference of Recent Advances in Tunnelling Technology, vol. 1, New Delhi, pp. 3–8.
Hajiabdolmajid, VR 2001, Mobilization of Strength in Brittle Failure of Rock, PhD thesis, Queen's University, Kingston.
Hajiabdolmajid, VR, Kaiser PK & Martin, CD 2002, ‘Modelling brittle failure of rock’, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, vol. 39, pp. 731–741.
Hoek, E & Brown, ET 1980, ‘Empirical strength criterion for rock masses’, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Division, vol. 106, no. GT9, pp. 1013–1035.
Hoek, E, Carranza-Torres, C & Corkum, B 2002, ‘Hoek-Brown failure criterion - 2002 edition’, in R Hammah, W Bawden, J Curran & M Telesnicki (eds), Proceedings of the NARMS-TAC Conference: Mining, Innovation and Technology, vol. 1, pp. 267–273.
Hoek, E, Kaiser, PK & Bawden, WF 1995, Support of Underground Excavations in Hard Rock, 3rd edn, Taylor & Francis, Rotterdam.
Itasca 2013, FLAC3D, version 5.01, Itasca Consulting Group, Inc., Minneapolis.
Martin, CD 1997, ‘The effect of cohesion loss and stress path on brittle rock strength’, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, vol. 34, pp. 698–725.
Martin, CD, Christiansson, R & Soderhall, J 2001, Rock stability considerations for siting and constructing a KBS-3 repository, Technical Report TR-01-38, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, Stockholm.
Pelli, F, Kaiser, PK & Morgenstern, NR 1991, ‘An interpretation of ground movements recorded during construction of Donkin-Morien tunnel’, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, vol. 28, pp. 239–254.
Rajmeny, PK, Singh, UK, Rathore, SS 2002, ‘Predicting failure of boreholes and drives adjacent to open stopes in Indian mines with high stress’, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Science, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 151–164.
Rocscience Inc. 2017, RocData, Rocscience Inc., Toronto, viewed 25 January 2017,
Rummel, F 2005, Rock Mechanics with Emphasis on Stress, Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 37–42.
Sainsbury, BA 2012, ‘A model for cave propagation and subsidence assessment in jointed rock masses’, PhD thesis, The University of New South Wales, Kensington.
Vakili, A 2016, ‘An improved unified constitutive model for rock material and guidelines for its application in numerical modelling’, Computers and Geotechnics, vol. 80, pp. 261–282.
Vakili, A, Albrecht, J & Sandy, M 2014, ‘Rock strength anisotropy and its importance in underground geotechnical design’, Proceedings of the Third Australasian Ground Control in Mining Conference, The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Carlton South, pp. 167–180.
Vakili, Α, Sandy, M & Albrecht, J 2012, ‘Interpretation of non-linear numerical models in geomechanics-a case study in the application of numerical modelling for raise bored shaft design in a highly stressed and foliated rock mass’, Proceedings of the 6th International Conference and Exhibition on Mass Mining, Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum, Sudbury.
Wagner, H 1987, ‘Design and support of underground excavations in highly stressed rock’, Proceedings of the 6th ISRM Congress on Rock Mechanics, vol. 3, Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 1443–1457.

© Copyright 2017, Australian Centre for Geomechanics (ACG), The University of Western Australia. All rights reserved.
Please direct any queries to or error reports to