Authors: Hadjigeorgiou, J; Karampinos, E
Show More
Download Paper
Open access courtesy of:

Citation as:   ris   bibtex   endnote   text   Zotero


Abstract:
Squeezing ground conditions are encountered in several underground rock mines. This paper addresses the selection of appropriate engineering tools that can be used for the prediction of squeezing and investigates the relative performance of different ground support options. A clear distinction is made between squeezing as a result of weak rock or shear failure and structurally defined buckling failure of the rock mass. A critical assessment is made of available empirical tools with particular emphasis on their limitations. The second part of the paper addresses issues with the use of numerical models and, in particular, the choice of numerical models that capture the prevalent mechanisms. A case study is presented whereby different reinforcement elements are used to control large deformations in mining drives. The paper provides a path forward to assessing the potential performance of new reinforcement elements at the same mine site. Keywords: squeezing ground, ground support, empirical design, numerical modelling

Keywords: squeezing ground, ground support, empirical design, numerical modelling

Citation:
Hadjigeorgiou, J & Karampinos, E 2017, 'Design tools for squeezing ground conditions in hard rock mines', in J Wesseloo (ed.), Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Deep and High Stress Mining, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 693-705.

References:
Armatys, M 2012, Modification des classifications géomécaniques pour les massifs rocheux schisteux, Mémoire de maîtris, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montreal.
Aydan, Ö, Akagi, T & Kawamoto, T 1993, ‘The squeezing potential of rocks around tunnels; theory and prediction’, Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 137–163.
Barla, GB & Barla, M 2008, ‘Innovative tunnelling construction methods in squeezing rock’, in P Boca (ed.), What Future for the Infrastructure? Innovation & Sustainable Development, Patron Editore, Bologna, pp. 103–119.
Barton, N, Lien, R & Lunde, J 1974, ‘Engineering classification of rock masses for the design of tunnel support’, Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 189–236.
Beck, D, Kassbohm, S & Putzar, G 2010, ‘Multi-scale simulation of ground support designs for extreme tunnel closure’, in Y Potvin (ed.), Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Block and Sublevel Caving, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 146–160.
Beck, DA & Sandy, MP 2003, ‘Mine sequencing for high recovery in Western Australian mines’, in MD Kuruppu & PA Lilly (eds), Proceedings of the 12th International Symposium on Mine Planning and Equipment Selection, The Australasian Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, Carlton South, pp. 38–46.
Bieniawski, ZT 1989, ‘Engineering Rock Mass Classifications’, John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 251.
Brady, B & Brown, E 2006, ‘Rock Mechanics for underground mining’, 3rd edn, Springer.
Brown, E, Bray, J, Ladanyi, B & Hoek, E 1983, ‘Characteristic line calculations for rock tunnels’, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Division, American Society of Civil Engineers, vol. 109, pp. 15–39.
Gao, F, Stead, D & Kang, H 2015, ‘Numerical simulation of squeezing failure in a coal mine roadway due to mining-induced stresses’, Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 1635–1645.
Grimstad, E & Barton, N 1993, ‘Updating of the Q-system for NMT’, Proceedings of International Symposium on Sprayed ConcreteModern Use of Wet Mix Sprayed Concrete for Underground Support, 18–21 October, Fagernes, Oslo, Norwegian Concrete Association.
Hoek, E 2001, ‘Big tunnels in bad rock’, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, vol. 127, no. 9, pp. 726–740.
Itasca Consulting Group Inc 2012, FLAC3D — Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua, software, version 5.0, Itasca Consulting Group Inc, Minnesota.
Itasca Consulting Group Inc 2013, 3DEC − Theory and Background, Itasca Consulting Group Inc, Minnesota.
Karampinos, E, Hadjigeorgiou, J, Hazzard, J & Turcotte, P 2015a, ‘Discrete element modelling of the buckling phenomenon in deep hard rock mines’, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, vol. 80, pp. 346–356.
Karampinos, E, Hadjigeorgiou, J & Turcotte, P 2016. ‘Discrete element modelling of the influence of reinforcement in structurally controlled squeezing mechanisms in a hard rock mine’, Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering.
Karampinos, E, Hadjigeorgiou, J, Turcotte, P & Mercier-Langevin, F 2015b, ‘Large-scale deformation in underground hard-rock mines’, Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, vol. 115, no. 7, pp. 645–652.
Kazakidis, VN 2002, ‘Confinement effects and energy balance analyses for buckling failure under eccentric loading conditions’, Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 115–126.
Malan, D 2002, ‘Manuel Rocha medal recipient simulating the time-dependent behaviour of excavations in hard rock’, Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 225–254.
Mercier-Langevin, F & Hadjigeorgiou, J 2011, ‘Towards a better understanding of squeezing potential in hard rock mines’, Mining Technology, vol. 120, no. 1, pp. 36–44.
Perman, F, Sjoberg, J, Olofsson, O & Rosengren, L 2007, ‘Numerical analyses of shotcrete reinforcement’, Proceedings of the 11th Congress of the International Society for Rock Mechanics, International Society for Rock Mechancis, Lisboa.
Potvin, Y & Hadjigeorgiou, J 2008, ‘Ground support strategies to control large deformations in mining excavations’, Journal of the South African Institute of Mining & Metallurgy, vol. 108, no. 7, pp. 397–404.
Potvin, Y & Hadjigeorgiou, J 2016, 'Selection of Ground Support for Mining Drives based on the Q-System', in E Nordlund, TH Jones & A Eitzenberger (eds), Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Ground Support in Mining and Underground Construction, 12–14 September 2016, Luleå, Sweden, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, pp. 16.
Rocscience Inc. 2007, PHASE2, 2D finite element software, Rocscience Inc., Toronto, www.rocscience.com
Sandbak, L & Rai, A 2013, ‘Ground support strategies at the turquoise ridge joint venture, Nevada’, Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 437–454.
Sandy, MP, Gibson, W & Gaudreau, D 2007, ‘Canadian and Australian ground support practices in high deformation environments’, in Y Potvin, J Hadjigeorgiou & D Stacey (eds), Challenges in Deep and High Stress Mining, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 297–311.
Schubert, W 2008, ‘Design of ductile tunnel linings’, Proceedings of the 42nd US Rock Mechanics Symposium, American Rock Mechanics Association, Alexandria, paper ARMA 08-146.
Singh, B, Jethwa, JL, Dube, AK & Singh, B 1992, ‘Correlation between observed support pressure and rock mass quality’, Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 59–74.
Turcotte, P 2010, ‘Field behaviour of hybrid bolt at LaRonde Mine’, in M Van Sint Jan & Y Potvin (eds.), Proceedings of the Fifth International Seminar on Deep and High Stress Mining, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 309–319.
Vakili, A, Sandy, M, Mathews, M & Rodda, B 2013, ‘Ground support design under highly stresses conditions’, in B Brady & Y Potvin (eds.), Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Ground Support in Mining and Underground Construction, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 551–564.
Vlachopoulos, N & Diederichs, M 2009, ‘Improved longitudinal displacement profiles for convergence confinement analysis of deep tunnels’, Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 131–146.
Vlachopoulos, N, Diederichs, M, Marinos, V & Marinos, P 2013, ‘Tunnel behaviour associated with the weak Alpine rock masses of the Driskos Twin Tunnel system, Egnatia Odos Highway’, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 91–120.
Vlachopoulos, N & Diederichs, M 2014, ‘Appropriate uses and practical limitations of 2D numerical analysis of tunnels and tunnel support response’, Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 469–488.
Zhao, K, Janutolo, M, Barla, G & Chen, G 2014, ‘3D simulation of TBM excavation in brittle rock associated with fault zones: The Brenner Exploratory Tunnel case’, Engineering Geology, vol. 181, pp. 93–111.




© Copyright 2017, Australian Centre for Geomechanics (ACG), The University of Western Australia. All rights reserved.
Please direct any queries to or error reports to repository-acg@uwa.edu.au