Authors: Hadjigeorgiou, J; Karampinos, E

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Hadjigeorgiou, J & Karampinos, E 2017, 'Design tools for squeezing ground conditions in hard rock mines', in J Wesseloo (ed.), Deep Mining 2017: Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Deep and High Stress Mining, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 693-705,

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Squeezing ground conditions are encountered in several underground rock mines. This paper addresses the selection of appropriate engineering tools that can be used for the prediction of squeezing and investigates the relative performance of different ground support options. A clear distinction is made between squeezing as a result of weak rock or shear failure and structurally defined buckling failure of the rock mass. A critical assessment is made of available empirical tools with particular emphasis on their limitations. The second part of the paper addresses issues with the use of numerical models and, in particular, the choice of numerical models that capture the prevalent mechanisms. A case study is presented whereby different reinforcement elements are used to control large deformations in mining drives. The paper provides a path forward to assessing the potential performance of new reinforcement elements at the same mine site.

Keywords: squeezing ground, ground support, empirical design, numerical modelling

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