Authors: Mucina, L; Tsakalos, JL; Macintyre, PD

Open access courtesy of:

DOI https://doi.org/10.36487/ACG_rep/1915_03_Mucina

Cite As:
Mucina, L, Tsakalos, JL & Macintyre, PD 2019, 'Ecology, biodiversity and mining: science and solving the challenges', in AB Fourie & M Tibbett (eds), Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Mine Closure, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 19-34, https://doi.org/10.36487/ACG_rep/1915_03_Mucina

Download citation as:   ris   bibtex   endnote   text   Zotero


Abstract:
Mining has an impact on the ecology and biodiversity of an area, and this impact is required to be mitigated under regulatory requirements. The mitigation is achieved by applying measures, deeply rooted in scientific knowledge, of the functioning of the impacted (and rehabilitated) ecosystems and the biota supported by these ecosystems. This paper focusses on selected issues of the pre-mining ecology and biodiversity surveys and the scientific basis of regulatory requirements. Using Western Australian experience and drawing on comparisons from other countries, this paper addresses two challenges. The first is the classification of vegetation of mining tenements to inform on the variability of vegetation using a series of data-analytical experiments. The paper reveals flaws in the current practise aimed at recognition and description of plant communities in vegetation surveys. Concrete steps serving and enhancing the clarity and plausibility of regulatory tools (guidance manuals) are identified. It also advises on what we should do if we find discrepancies between the regulatory expectations and the level they reflect current scientific knowledge. The second is the comparative and spatial aspects of the identification of communities of conservation interest. The paper further identifies the missing vital information of the vegetation mapping procedures and briefly analyses the need for tools assisting assessment of conservation value of the vegetation classifications, including the building of a centralised vegetation database, formulation of vegetation and habitat classification systems, and construction of scientifically sound and ecologically informative vegetation maps at various scales of complexity.

References:
Beard JS, Beeston, GR, Harvey JM, Hopkins, AJM & Shepherd, DP 2014, ‘The vegetation of Western Australia at the scale 1:3,000,000 scale’, 2nd edn, Conservation Science Western Australia, vol. 9, issue 1, pp. 1–152.
Belbin, L 2003, PATN. A Revised USER’s Guide, Blatant Fabrications, Bonnet Hill.
Caliński, T & Harabasz, J 1974, ‘A dendrite method for cluster analysis’, Communications in Statistics, vol. 3, pp. 1–27.
Chytrý, M, Hennekens, SM, Jiménez‐Alfaro, B, Knollová, I, Dengler, J, Jansen, F … Yamalov, S 2016, ‘European Vegetation Archive (EVA): an integrated database of European vegetation plots’, Applied Vegetation Science, vol. 19, iss. 1, pp. 173–180.
Clarke, KR & Gorley, RN 2015, PRIMER v7: User Manual/Tutorial, PRIMER-EPlymouth, Plymouth.
Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions 2019, Threatened Species and Communities, Government of Western Australia, .
Environmental Protection Authority 2004, Guidance Statement No. 51, Terrestrial Flora and Vegetation Surveys for Environmental Impact Assessment in Western Australia, Government of Western Australia, Perth.
Environmental Protection Authority 2016, Technical Guidance - Flora and Vegetation Surveys for Environmental Impact Assessment, Government of Western Australia, Perth.
European Commission 2007, EUNIS Habitat Classification, European Commission, Bruxelles,
Gibson, N 2004, ‘Flora and Vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: Part 6. Mt Manning Range’, Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia, vol. 87, pp. 35–47.
Gibson, N 2018, ‘Availability of vegetation plot data in Western Australia: a reply to Gellie et al.’, Phytocoenologia, vol. 48,
pp. 321–324.
Grime, JP 1987, ‘Dominant and Subordinate Components of Plant Communities: Implications for Succession, Stability and Diversity, in AJ Gray & MJ Crawley (eds), Colonization, Succession and Stability, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
Hennekens, SM & Schaminée, JHJ 2001, ‘Turboveg, a comprehensive database management system for vegetation data’, Journal of Vegetation Science, vol. 12, pp. 589–591.
Hennig, C 2015, FPC: Flexible Procedures for Clustering, R package version 2.1-10, computer software, https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=fpc
Janssen, JAM, Rodwell, JS, Garcia Criado, M, Gubbay, S, Haynes, T, Nieto, A … Valachovič, M 2016, European Red List of Habitats. Part 2. Terrestrial and Freshwater Habitats, European Union, Bruxelles.
Legendre, P & Legendre, LF 2012, Numerical Ecology, 3rd edn, Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Macintyre, PD, Van Niekerk, A, Dobrowolski, MP, Tsakalos, JL & Mucina, L 2018, ‘Impact of ecological redundancy on the performance of machine learning classifiers in vegetation mapping’, Ecology and Evolution, vol. 8, pp. 6728–6737.
McCune, B & Mefford, MJ 1999, PC-ORD. Multivariate Analysis of Ecological Data. Version 4, MjM Software Design, Gleneden Beach.
Mucina L 2009, Jack Hills Iron Ore Project Area: Auditing of the Conflicting Vegetation Classifications and Vegetation Mapping of Plant Communities in Reports by Mattiske Consulting (2006) and Ecologia Environment (2009), Department of Environmental and Aquatic Sciences, Curtin University of Technology, Perth.
Mucina, L 2010, ‘Floristic-phytosociological approach, potential natural vegetation, and survival of prejudice’, Lazaroa, vol. 31,
pp. 7–16.
Mucina, L, Bültmann, H, Dierssen, K, Theurillat, J-P, Raus, T, Čarni, … Tichý, L 2016, ‘Vegetation of Europe: hierarchical floristic classification system of vascular plant, bryophyte, lichen, and algal communities’, Applied Vegetation Science, vol. 19,
pp. 3–264.
Mucina, L & Daniel, G 2013, Vegetation Mapping in the Northern Kimberley, Western Australia, Curtin University, Perth.
Mucina, L & Rutherford, MC 2016, The Vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.
Oksanen, J, Blanchet, FG, Friendly, M, Kindt, R, Legendre, P, McGlinn, D, … Wagner H 2019, Vegan: Community Ecology Package, R Package version 2.5-4, computer software, https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=vegan
Parks and Wildlife 2015a, Priority Ecological Communities for Western Australia, Version 22, 6 June 2015, Department of Parks and Wildlife, Perth.
Parks and Wildlife 2015b, List of Threatened Ecological Communities Endorsed by the Minister for the Environment, 25 June 2015, Department of Parks and Wildlife, Perth.
Podani, J 2000, Introduction to the Exploration of Multivariate Biological Data, Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.
R Core Team 2019, R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna,
Tichý, L, Chytrý, M, Hájek, M, Talbot, SS & Botta-Dukát, Z 2010, ‘OptimClass: using species-to-cluster fidelity to determine the optimal partition in classification of ecological communities’, Journal of Vegetation Science, vol. 21, pp. 287–299.
Wildi, O 2017, Dave: Functions for "Data Analysis in Vegetation Ecology", R package version 2.0, computer software, https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=dave




© Copyright 2019, Australian Centre for Geomechanics (ACG), The University of Western Australia. All rights reserved.
Please direct any queries or error reports to repository-acg@uwa.edu.au