Syari, IA, Sudrajat, J, Octaviano, HA, Hutahaean, B, Adnis, R & Taruk Allo, OA 2019, 'Implementation of offshore reclamation methods on an old tin mining area on Bangka Island, Indonesia', in AB Fourie & M Tibbett (eds), Mine Closure 2019: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Mine Closure
, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 1315-1334, https://doi.org/10.36487/ACG_rep/1915_104_Syari
The high demand for tin as a raw material requires tin producers to generate large quantities for use in various products. Several companies, both state-owned and private, are vying to increase production through the exploration and exploitation of tin resources on land and water. Mining activities on the Bangka Belitung Islands, especially offshore mining activities, have a positive economic impact for the local community. However, these activities have had negative effects, too, such as the environmental degradation of marine ecosystems—when, for instance, the mining activities have not been conducted according to the principles of mining environmentally and sustainably. Thus, extensive mining has caused changes, such as damage to mangrove forests and an increasing amount of fine sediment and suspended soil at the bottom of the sea. Mangrove damage will make the islands more vulnerable to the sea water, while the addition of fine sediment to the sea will increase turbidity and reduce the amount of light available for photosynthesis, creating a hostile environment for coral and fish and thus reducing their populations. PT TIMAH Tbk is one of the state-owned companies engaged in tin mining; it has permission to mine in the sea with as many as 27 permits or an area of 184,672 hectares. PT TIMAH Tbk has conducted offshore reclamation (rehabilitation) as one of its obligations as a mining company. This has included planting mangroves (35,000 stems), providing fish shelters and transplanting coral (861 units). The results of the mangrove planting cannot yet be determined due to the short observation period. However, the coral transplantations and fish shelters are showing better results because these two programs are creating promising artificial habitats for coral and fish.
Keywords: offshore reclamation; PT TIMAH Tbk; responsible mining; mine closure; mangrove planting, fish shelter and coral transplantation; Bangka Belitung Indonesia
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