Authors: Ladinig, T; Wagner, H; Daborer, A


Cite As:
Ladinig, T, Wagner, H & Daborer, A 2019, 'Effects of stoping activities on tunnel conditions in a deep, hard rock mine in Austria', in W Joughin (ed.), Deep Mining 2019: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Deep and High Stress Mining, The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Johannesburg, pp. 87-96,

Download citation as:   ris   bibtex   endnote   text   Zotero

In a deep Austrian hard rock mine, the effect of stoping activities on a mine tunnel situated in the abutment area of a stoping panel, was investigated by means of underground observations and numerical modelling using FLAC 2D and 3D to assess the stress changes resulting from the advancing stopes. This paper discusses the difficulties encountered in quantifying in situ mechanical properties of sheared and jointed rock mass, numerical modelling of the complex geological conditions and relating calculated stress changes to in situ tunnel conditions. It was found that the rockwall condition factor (RCF) tunnel assessment criteria developed to evaluate tunnel conditions in deep South African gold mines, worked remarkably well under very different geological conditions. The focus of this paper is on the approaches adopted to deal with the uncertainties encountered in back analyses and case studies of situations involving behaviour of slender stope pillars, paste fill and regional effects of stoping activities on mine tunnels.

Barton, N., Lien, R. and Lunde, J. (1974). Engineering classification of rock masses for the design of tunnel support. Rock Mechanics, 6 (4), 189–239.
Barton, N. (2002). Some new Q-value correlations to assist in site characterisation and tunnel design. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Science, 39 (2), 185–216.
Bieniawski, Z.T. (1976). Rock mass classification in rock engineering. Exploration for rock engineering. Bieniawski Z.T. (ed.), 1, 97–106.
Blaha, H. and Wagner, H. (2013). Zur Frage der Belastung und Stabilität von Bergfesten im Hartgesteinsbergbau am Beispiel des „Post–Pillar“–Abbauverfahrens. BHM Berg- und Hüttenmännische Monatshefte, 158 (4), 121–129.
Brady, B.H.G. and Brown, E.T. (2004). Rock Mechanics for underground mining, 3rd edn. Springer Science + Business Media.
Cook, N.G.W., Hoek, E., Pretorius, J.P.G., Ortlepp, W.D. and Salamon, M.D.G. (1966). Rock mechanics applied to the study of rockbursts. Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 66 (10), 436–528.
Hoek, E. and Brown, E.T. (1988). The Hoek-Brown failure criterion – a 1988 Update. Proceedings of 15th Can Rock Mechanics Symposium, University of Toronto Press: Toronto, 3–38.
Hoek, E. Carranza-Torres, C. Corkum, B. (2002). Hoek-Brown failure criterion – 2002 Edition. Proceedings 5th North American Rock Mechanics Symposium and 17th Tunnelling Association of Canada Conference, NARMS–TAC, Toronto, Hammah, R., Bawden, W., Curran, J. and Telsnicki M. (eds.). University Toronto Press: Toronto, 267–273.
Hoek, E. Carter, T.G. and Diederichs, M.S. (2013). Quantification of the Geological Strength Index chart. Paper presented at the 47th US Rock Mechanics /Geomechanics Symposium, San Francisco, CA, USA, June 23–26, 2013.
Jager, A.J. and Ryder, J.A. (1999). A handbook on rock engineering practice for tabular hard rock mines. The Safety in Mines Research Advisory Committee (SIMRAC), Johannesburg.
Marinos, P. and Hoek, E. (2000). GSI: A geologically friendly tool for rock mass strength estimation. Proceedings of the GeoEng 2000 Conference, Melbourne, Technomic Publishers Co Inc, Lancaster, 1422–1442
Moser, A. (2018). Backfill Systems. Research Project FFG No. 848616, FFG – Austrian Agency for Promotion of Industry related Research, Wien.
Moser, A. Wagner, H. and Schinagl, S. (2017). Application of rock mass classification systems as a tool for rock mass strength determination. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Deep and High Stress Mining, Wesseloo J. (ed.), 28-30 March 2017, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, 569–585.
Salamon, M.D.G. (1984). Energy considerations in rock mechanics: fundamental results. Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 84 (8), 233–246.
Salamon, M.D.G. and Munro A.H. (1967). A study of the strength of coal pillars. Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 68 (2), 5567.
Wiseman, N. (1979). Factors effecting the design and conditions of mine tunnels. Research Report No. G01G10. Chamber of Mines Research Organization, Johannesburg, South Africa

© Copyright 2024, Australian Centre for Geomechanics (ACG), The University of Western Australia. All rights reserved.
View copyright/legal information
Please direct any queries or error reports to