Birch, DJ & Meyer, S G 2019, 'Seismic Response to hydraulic fracturing in caving mines', in W Joughin (ed.), Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Deep and High Stress Mining
, The Southern Africa Institute of Mining and Metallurgy , Johannesburg.
We present qualitative observations of the recorded rock mass response to hydraulic-fracturing in four case studies from three major caving mines and demonstrate usefulness in the application of advanced seismological methods to describe this response. Three out of the four cases represent a rare opportunity where the seismic response to hydraulic-fracturing was fairly isolated. The activation of structures was readily evidenced using source mechanism analysis. Hydraulic-fracturing applied along the abutment of a cave was shown to be effective in inducing propagation in a highly stressed, stalled section of the cave. The dominant mode of failure in all cases was shear. The amount and type of volumetric change associated with seismicity was dependent on the proximity of the events to mine voids. Seismic activity rates were estimated to be between 10 and 75 times higher during fluid injection than in the time prior to treatment.
Brzovic, A., Skarmeta, J., Blanco, B., Dunlop, R. and Sepulveda, M.P. (2017). Sub-horizontal faulting mechanism for large rock bursts at the El-Teniente mine. Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Rockbursts and Seismicity in Mines. Vallejos, J.A. (ed). Santiago, Chile. pp. 124–132.
Catalan A., Onederra, I. and Chitombo, G. (2017). Evaluation of intensive preconditioning in block and panel caving – part II, quantifying the effect on seismicity and draw rates. Mining Technology, DOI: 10.1080/14749009.2017.1319527.
Gischig, V.S. and Preisig, G. (2015). Hydro-fracturing versus hydro-shearing: A critical assessment of two distinct reservoir stimulation mechanisms. Proceedings of the 13th International Congress of Rock Mechanics. ISRM, Montréal, Canada.
Hanks, T. C. and Kanamori, H. (1979). A moment magnitude scale. Journal of Geophysical Research, 84 (5), pp. 2348–2350.
Hudson, J., Pearce, R. and Rogers, R. (1989). Source Type plot for inversion of the moment tensor. Journal of Geophysical Research, 94(B1), 765–774.
Mendecki, A. J. (1997). Seismic Monitoring in Mines. Chapman and Hall, Cambridge.
Rojas, E. and Landeros, P. (2017). Hydraulic fracturing applied to tunnels development at El-Teniente mine. Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Rockbursts and Seismicity in Mines. Vallejos, J.A. (ed). Santiago, Chile. pp. 244–250.
Van As, A. and Jeffrey, R.G. (2000). Hydraulic fracturing as a cave inducement technique at NorthParkes Mines. Proceedings of MassMin 2000. Mang, H.A., Rammerstorfer, F.G. and Eberhardsteiner, J. (eds). AusIMM, Brisbane, Queensland. pp. 165-172.