Authors: Marques, A; Oliveira, S; Paes, B; Paes, I; Coelho, A


Cite As:
Marques, A, Oliveira, S, Paes, B, Paes, I & Coelho, A 2020, 'Evaluation of the Liquefaction Susceptibility of Filtered Iron Ore Tailings from the Iron Quadrangle (Brazil) ', in H Quelopana (ed.), 23rd International Conference on Paste, Thickened and Filtered Tailings - PASTE 2020, Gecamin Publications, Santiago,

Download citation as:   ris   bibtex   endnote   text   Zotero

Over the last few years, there has been a substantial increase in the degree of complexity of requirements regarding the licensing of tailings dams in Brazil. The stacking of filtered tailings is currently proposed as an alternative solution for tailings storage facilities; however, there are numerous challenges to understand and manage these structures in regions of high rainfall and high disposal rates. In this context, the objective of this article is to evaluate the liquefaction susceptibility of filtered iron ore tailings, based on field (piezocone) and laboratory tests (characterization and triaxial compression), both performed at an experimental landfill, located in the Iron Quadrangle (Quadrilátero Ferrífero), Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Therefore, a few methodologies were used to evaluate liquefaction susceptibility by means of the critical state theory, furthermore the fragility index of the material were also evaluated. Results indicated that the constructive method used in the experimental landfill (i.e., compaction energy, moisture and layer thickness) resulted in variability in the in-situ void ratio, indicating susceptibility to liquefaction for materials on depths greater than 0.75 m from compaction surface. In addition, from laboratory tests it was possible to determine the critical state line of the filtered tailings.

American Society for Testing and Materials (2012a), Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12 400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3 )), ASTM D698 International, West Conshohocken.
Bedin, J., Schnaid, F., Viana da Fonseca, A., and Costa Filho, L. M. (2011). ‘Gold tailings liquefaction under critical state soil mechanics.’ Geotechnique, 62(3), 263–267.
Bishop, A.W. (1967). ‘Progressive failure – with special reference to the mechanism causing it’. Proc. Geotechnical Conf., Oslo, Vol.2:142–150.
Carrera, A., Coop, M. R., and Lancellotta, R. (2011). ‘Influence of grading on the mechanical behaviour of Stava tailings’. Geotechnique, 61(11), 935–946.
Crystal, C., Hore, C. and Ezama, I. (2018) ‘Filter-pressed dry stacking: Design considerations based on practical experience’. Proceedings Tailings and Mine Waste, Keystone, Colorado, USA, pp. 209–219.
Fear, C.E., Robertson, P.K. (1995). ‘Estimating the undrained strength of sand: a theoretical framework’. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 32(4), 859-870.
Jefferies, M.G. and Been, K., (2016). Soil Liquefaction – A critical state approach. Taylor & Francis, London.
Olson, S.M. and Stark, T.D., (2003). ‘Yield strength ratio and liquefaction analysis of slopes and embankments’. ASCE Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 129(8): 727 – 737.
Plewes, H.D., Davies, M.P., and Jefferies, M.G. (1992). ‘CPT based screening procedure for evaluating liquefaction susceptibility’. Proceedings of the 45thCanadian Geotechnical Conference, Toronto, Ont., pp.4:1–4:9.
Robertson, P.K., (2016). ‘Cone Penetration Test (CPT) - based soil behavior type (SBT) classification system – an update’. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 53 (12).
Robertson, P. K. (2017) ‘Evaluation of Flow Liquefaction : influence of high stresses’. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Performance Based Design (PBD-III), Vancouver, BC, Canada, p. 8.
Schnaid, F.; Bedin, J.; Viana Da Fonseca, A. J. P.; De Moura Costa Filho, L. (2013). ‘Stiffness and Strength Governing the Static Liquefaction of Tailings’. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, v. 139, p. 2136-2144.
Viana da Fonseca, A., Coop, M. T., Fahey, M., and Consoli, N. (2011). ‘The interpretation of conventional and nonconventional laboratory tests for challenging geotechnical problems.’ Proc., 5th Int. Symp. on Deformation Characteristics of Geomaterials, IS-Seoul, Vol. 1, IOS Press, Seoul, 84–119.

© Copyright 2021, Australian Centre for Geomechanics (ACG), The University of Western Australia. All rights reserved.
Please direct any queries or error reports to