Authors: Yunanto, T; Amanah, F; Gultom, TH; Asdini, S

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Yunanto, T, Amanah, F, Gultom, TH & Asdini, S 2021, 'The evaluation of flora and fauna in coal mine reclamation land (case study: PT Dharma Puspita Mining, East Kalimantan, Indonesia)', in AB Fourie, M Tibbett & A Sharkuu (eds), Mine Closure 2021: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Mine Closure, QMC Group, Ulaanbaatar,

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It is inevitable that mining exploitation, in addition to having a positive impact on national income can also have a negative impact on the environment, such as reduced diversity of both flora and fauna. To restore environmental functions, mining companies are required to carry out mine reclamation. Environmental management that needs to be carried out after reclamation activities are monitoring and evaluating the success of reclamation, especially flora and fauna diversity, such as vegetation, avifauna and mammals. The purposes of this study were: 1) to identify and measure the biodiversity of terrestrial flora, 2) to identify and measure the biodiversity of avifauna and mammal species, 3) to determine the conservation status of flora and fauna in the reclamation area, and 4) to compare the biodiversity of flora and fauna in the reclamation area and secondary natural forest. The studies were carried out in 3 reclamation areas (year of plantation: 2006, 2007 and 2008), and secondary forests nearby as comparison. Line plot sampling was used in the vegetation studies. Both direct observation and catching up with mist net were taken in the avifauna and mammal evaluation. In addition, footprint identification was used in mammal investigation. The results showed that the Shannon-Wiener index (H') of reclamation 2007 and 2008 (H' = 3.04) for sapling stage was higher than secondary forests (H’ = 2.56). Generally, vegetation in the reclamation area was dominated by the family of Euphorbiaceae (9 species), Rubiaceae (6 species), and Leguminosae (5 species). Among of them, 8 species were included in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red list and 1 species was included in Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendices II. Species of birds found in the reclamation area were about 59 species which were dominated by open area bird species and shrubs. The number of mammals found was 15 species, with six of them being protected species, 1 threatened species and 3 vulnerable species according to IUCN. Enrichment planting of long-life or local native species is necessary to be conducted in order to increase the diversity of flora and fauna. An increase in the variation of local plants species will correlate with the arrival of herbivorous fauna species and phytophagous insects. The arrival of the first-level consumer fauna will spur the presence of the next-level consumer fauna that are both carnivorous and omnivorous. The greater types of fauna that come can bring plant seeds from other sources and grow naturally in the reclamation area. This case study showed mine reclamation can result naturally growth of vegetation and became proper habitat for fauna to return

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