Authors: Mangwaya, LT; Muzerengi, C; Madi, K

Open access courtesy of:

DOI https://doi.org/10.36487/ACG_repo/2152_30

Cite As:
Mangwaya, LT, Muzerengi, C & Madi, K 2021, 'Secondary resources at abandoned mine tailings, Giyani Greenstone Belt, Limpopo Province of South Africa', in AB Fourie, M Tibbett & A Sharkuu (eds), Mine Closure 2021: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Mine Closure, QMC Group, Ulaanbaatar, https://doi.org/10.36487/ACG_repo/2152_30

Download citation as:   ris   bibtex   endnote   text   Zotero


Abstract:
Mining waste are materials that result from the exploration, mining and processing of substances and can consist of natural materials, processed to varying degrees during the ore-processing and enrichment phases, and possibly containing chemical, inorganic and organic additives. Evaluation of the REEs potential of the Klein Letaba tailings dam was envisaged to assist in the containment at the currently un-rehabilitated mine tailings material. These tailings are a concern to the livelihood of nearby communities in the Giyani area due to their threat to water and soil quality. The methodologies used in this study consist of sampling, sample preparation and analysis using X-ray spectrometry technique and calculation of the tonnage of the tailings material using the Trapezoidal rule method. The results indicated that the REE abundance at the tailings dump in their decreasing concentration were Yb > La > Ce > Gd > Sm > Dy > Y > Er > Tb > Eu > Sc. The tailings dam was found to have significant levels of both LREEs and HREEs, which are above the upper continental crust thresholds. For instance, the HREEs Gd, Dy, and Yb were almost 10 times or more than the crustal abundances and this being 56, 46 and 17 mg/kg respectively. The LREEs and HREEs had also a total concentration 602 and 769 mg/kg respectively. The calculated volume of the tailings material was found to be 527,081 m3 and the tonnage was derived to be 1,291 349.0 tons of tailings material at the site. Consequently, the total LREEs and HREEs contained in the material was estimated to be 843 tons and worth re-evaluating. The paper uses REEs at this study site to illustrate how other un-rehabilitated sites can be re-evaluated and attract investment towards exploiting them and subsequently assisting in tailings containment. However, the REEs at Klein Letaba tailings dam was found to be uneconomic to exploit under the current prices and technology

References:
Beaudry, F., 2018. Environmental Risks from Mine Tailings. [online]. Available at: [Accessed 9 Jun. 2018].
Brandl, G. Anhaeusser, C. R. and Cloete, M., 2006. Archean Greenstone Belts. In M. R. Johnson, C. R Anhaeusser and R. J. Thomas (eds.): The Geology of South Africa, GSSA/Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, Chapt. 2, pp. 9-47.
Castor, S. B. and Hedrick, J. B. 2006. Rare earth elements, in J. E. Kogel, N. C. Trivedi, J. M. Barker and S. T. Krukowski (ed.), Industrial minerals and rocks: commodities, markets and uses, 7th edn, 769–792, SME.
Chandra, A. M. 2005. Surveying: Problem Solution with Theory and Objective Type Questions. New Delhi: New Age International Pvt. Ltd.
Edahbi, M. Benzaazoua, M. Plante, B. Doire, S. Kormos, L., 2017. Mineralogical characterization using QEMSCAN and leaching potential study of REE within silicate ores: A case study of the Matamec project, Québec, Canada. J. Geochem. Explor, Vol. 185, 64–73.
Farnahm, A., 2013. New Mother Lode for Rare Elements. [online] ABC News. Available at: [Accessed 9 Jun. 2018].
Gan, S. B. and Van Reenen, D. D., 1995. Geology of Gold Deposits in the Southern Marginal Zone of the Limpopo Belt and the adjacent Sutherland Greenstone Belt, South Africa. South Africa Journal of Geology, 98. vol.3, pp. 263-275.
Haque, N., Hughes, A., Lim, S. and Vernon, C., 2014. Rare earth elements: Overview of mining, mineralogy, uses, sustainability and environmental impact. Resources, vol. 3, no 4, pp. 614-635.
Hoatson, D. M., Jaireth, S., and Miezitis, Y., 2011. The Major Rare-Earth-Element Deposits of Australia: Geological Setting, Exploration, and Resources. Onshore Energy and Minerals Division, Geoscience Australia.
Humphries, M., 2013. Rare earth elements: The global supply chain. Congressional Research Service, CRS Report for Congress, 7-5700, 27 pp.
Humphris, S., 1984. The mobility of the rare earth elements in the crust. In P. Henderson (ed), Rare Earth Geochemistry. Developments in Geochemistry 2, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 317 42.
Henderson, P. (1984). Rare Earth Element Geochemistry. Elsevier, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Johnson, M. R., Anhauesser, C. R. and Thomas, R. J., 2006. The Geology of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, pp. 34-36.
Kleywegt, R. J., Stettler, E. H, Brandl, G. and Day, R. W., 1987. The Structure of the Giyani Greenstone Belt as Derived from the Geophysical studies. Geophysical Division, Geological Survey of South Africa, South Africa Journal of Geology, 90. vol.3, pp. 282-295.
Laveuf, C. and Cornu, S., 2009. A review on the potentiality of rare earth elements to trace pedogenetic processes. Geoderma, vol. 154, no. 1, pp. 1-12.
McCourt, S and Van Reenen, D., 1992. Structural Geology and Tectonic Setting of the Sutherland Greenstone Belt, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa, Precambrian Res. vol. 55, pp. 93-110.
Masto, R. E., Ram, L. C., Verma, S. K., Selvi, V. A., George, J., Tripathi, R. C., Srivastava, N. K., Mohanty, D., Jha, S. K., Sinha, A. K. and Sinha, A., 2011. Rare earth elements in soils of Jharia coal field. World Acad Sci Eng Technol, vol. 5, pp. 629-634.
Matovheke, T. and Muzerengi, C., 2018. Pollution Vulnerability of Agricultural Soils near the Klein Letaba Abandoned Gold Mine, Limpopo Province of South Africa. University of Venda, pp. 1-2.
McDonough, W. F. and Sun, S. S., 1995. The composition of the Earth. Chemical geology, vol. 120(3-4), pp. 223-253.
Mhlongo, S. E., Amponsah-Dacosta, F. and Kadyamatimba, A., 2020 ‘Appraisal of strategies for dealing with the physical hazards of abandoned surface mine excavations: A case study of frankie and nyala mines in South Africa’, Minerals, vol. 10 no. 2. doi: 10.3390/min10020145.
Mulugisi, G., Gumbo, J. R., Dacosta, F, A and Muzerengi, C., 2009. The Use of Indigenous Grass species as part of Rehabilitation of Mine Tailings: A Case study of New Union Gold Mine. Proceedings of the International Mine Water Conference, South Africa, pp. 512-513.
Mitileni, C., Gumbo, J., Muzerengi, C. and Dacosta, F., 2011. The distribution of toxic metals in sediments: Case study of new union gold mine tailings, Limpopo, South Africa. Mine Water—Managing the Challenges; IMWA: Aachen, Germany, pp. 609-614.
Roskill, 2015. Rare earths: Market outlook to 2020, 15th Edition, Roskill, London, 50-263 pp.
Potgieter, G. A., and De Veliers, J. P. R., 1986. Controls of Mineralization at the Fumani Gold Deposit, Sutherland Greenstone Belt. In C. R. Anhaeusser and S. Maske (eds.): Mineral deposits of Southern Africa, Geological Society of South Africa, vol. 1, pp. 198-204.
Pretorius, A. I, Van Reenen, D. D and Barton, J. M., 1988. BIF-Hosted Gold Mineralization at the Fumani Mine, Sutherland Greenstone belt, South Africa. South Africa Journal of Geology, vol. 91, pp. 429-430.
Prinsloo, M. C., 1977. The Geology of the Giyani Region, North-eastern Transvaal Showing Easy Economic Mineral Settings. Unpubl. M.Sc. thesis, Rand Africans Univ., Johannesburg, 44 pp.
SACS: South African Committee for Stratigraphy, 1980. Lithostratigraphy of the Republic of South Africa, South West Africa/Namibia, and the Republic of Bophuthatswana, Transkei and Venda. Hand book of Geological Survey of South Africa, vol. 8, 690 pp.
Salminen, S., Batista, M.J., Bidovec., et al., 2005. FOREGS Geochemical Atlas of Europe. Part 1. Background Information, Methodology, and Maps. Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo.
Schofiel. W, and Breach, M. 2007 Engineering Surveying. 6th edn, Oxford: Elsevier Ltd.
Steenkamp, N. C. and Clark-Mostert, V., 2012. Impact of illegal mining at historic gold mine locations, Giyani Greenstone Belt area, South Africa. In Proceedings of the 9th International Mining History Congress, pp. 1-3.
Taylor, S. R. and McLennan, S. M., 1985. The continental crust: Its composition and evolution. Biackwell. Oxford, pp. 125-133.




© Copyright 2021, Australian Centre for Geomechanics (ACG), The University of Western Australia. All rights reserved.
Please direct any queries or error reports to repository-acg@uwa.edu.au