Jarufe, J 2022, 'Application of empirical methods to estimate crown pillar failure in caving mines', in Y Potvin (ed.), Caving 2022: Fifth International Conference on Block and Sublevel Caving
, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 849-860, https://doi.org/10.36487/ACG_repo/2205_58
Crown pillar in cave mines corresponds to the solid rock pillar located between the cave and the surface in the early stages of the caving process. A correct estimation of the failure time may provide valuable assistance in planning underground and surface activities.
While modelling has shown important advances in the simulation of the breakthrough process, empirical tools may provide an early warning of the pillar failure process, delivering early guidelines about when to isolate surface infrastructure or change draw velocities due to the change in the mined column height.
This paper reviews empirical methods to estimate crown pillar stability and their application in the breakthrough process in block cave mines, evidenced by a case study in Chuquicamata underground mine.
Keywords: caving, crown pillar, subsidence, empirical method, breakthrough
Bakhtavar, E, Oraee, K & Shahriar, K 2010, ‘Determination of the optimum crown pillar thickness between open pint and block caving’, Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Ground Control in Mining, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown.
Carter, T 1992, ‘A new approach on surface crown pillar design’, Proceedings of the 16th U.S. Symposium on Rock Mechanics, American Rock Mechanics Association, Alexandria, pp. 75–83.
Carter, T 2014, ‘An update on the scaled span concept for dimensioning surface crown pillars for new or abandoned mine workings’, Environmental Science.
Flores, GE 2005, Rock Mas Response to the Transition from Open Pit to Underground Cave Mining, PhD thesis, The University of Queensland, St Lucia.
Flores, G & Catalan, A 2019, ‘A transition from large open pit into a novel "macroblock variant" block caving geometry at Chuquicamata mine, Codelco Chile’, Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, vol. 11–3, pp. 549–561.
Flores-Gonzalez, G 2019, 'Major hazards associated with cave mining: are they manageable?', in J Wesseloo (ed.), MGR 2019: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Mining Geomechanical Risk, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 31–46,
Glazer, SN 2016, Mine Seismology: Data Analysis and Interpretation, Springer International Publishing, Berlin.
Glazer, SN & Hepworth, N 2005, 'Seismicity Induced by Cave Mining, Palabora Experience', in Y Potvin & M Hudyma (eds), RaSiM6: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Rockburst and Seismicity in Mines Proceedings, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 281-289,
Harris, PH & Wesseloo, J 2015, mXrap, version 5, computer software, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, https://mxrap.com
Laubscher, DH 2000, A Practical Manual on Block Caving,
Mendecki, A 2013, ‘Mine seismology: glossary of selected terms’, Proceedings of the 8th Rockburst and Seismicity in Mines Symposium,