Authors: Sewnun, D; Wesseloo, J; Heinsen Egan, M

Open access courtesy of:

DOI https://doi.org/10.36487/ACG_repo/2205_72

Cite As:
Sewnun, D, Wesseloo, J & Heinsen Egan, M 2022, 'A review of structural data collection methodologies for discrete fracture network generation', in Y Potvin (ed.), Caving 2022: Fifth International Conference on Block and Sublevel Caving, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 1047-1060, https://doi.org/10.36487/ACG_repo/2205_72

Download citation as:   ris   bibtex   endnote   text   Zotero


Abstract:
The variability in a rock mass must be considered in geotechnical engineering analyses and designs. Discrete fracture network (DFN) modelling accounts for structural variability in a rock mass, providing a valuable tool that may be used in various geotechnical applications. DFNs provide a statistical representation of the rock mass discontinuity system by the stochastic generation of discontinuity sets. This is based on structural data collected in the field from boreholes or by mapping exposures. DFN generation therefore involves structural data collection from which discontinuity sets may be defined. Each discontinuity set within a single structural domain is characterised using statistical distributions to describe the orientation, spacing, and trace lengths of the discontinuities, which are used to provide input parameters for DFN generation. The quality of a DFN therefore relies on the quality of the field data and its interpretation. This paper reviews the various approaches available to collect structural data for DFN generation. The advantages and limitations of each method is given, and data collection and analysis strategies are outlined.

Keywords: structural data collection, discrete fracture network modelling

References:
Baecher, G 1983, ‘Statistical analysis of rock mass fracturing’, Mathematical Geology, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 329–348.
Birch, J 2006, ‘Using 3DM Analyst mine mapping suite for rock face characterization’, Laser and Photogrammetric Methods for Rock Face Characterization, vol. 15.
Dershowitz, WS & Einstein, HH 1988, ‘Characterizing rock joint geometry with joint system models’, Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 21–51, doi.org/10.1007/bf01019674
Dershowitz, WS & Herda, HH 1992a, ‘Interpretation of fracture spacing and intensity’, in JR Tillerson & WR Wawersik (eds), Proceedings of the 33rd U.S. Symposium on Rock Mechanics, A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.
Dershowitz, WS & Herda, HH 1992b, ‘Interpretation of fracture spacing and intensity’, in JR Tillerson & WR Wawersik (eds), Proceedings of The 33rd U.S. Symposium on Rock Mechanics, A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.
Elmo, D, Liu, Y & Rogers, S 2014, ‘Principles of discrete fracture network modelling for geotechnical applications’, Proceedings of the First International DFNE Conference.
Esmaieli, K, Hadjigeorgiou, J & Grenon, M 2010, ‘Estimating geometrical and mechanical REV based on synthetic rock mass models at Brunswick Mine’, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 915–926, doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2010.05.010
Esmaieli, K, Hadjigeorgiou, J & Grenon, M 2013, ‘Stability analysis of the 19A ore pass at Brunswick mine using a two-stage numerical modeling approach’, Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 1323–1338.
Fekete, S & Diederichs, M 2013, ‘Integration of three-dimensional laser scanning with discontinuum modelling for stability analysis of tunnels in blocky rockmasses’, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, vol. 57, pp. 11–23, doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2012.08.003
Feng, Q & Röshoff, K 2015, ‘A survey of 3D laser scanning techniques for application to rock mechanics and rock engineering’,
in R Ulusay (ed), The ISRM Suggested Methods for Rock Characterization, Testing and Monitoring: 2007-2014, Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 265–293.
Fisher, RA 1953, ‘Dispersion on a sphere’, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences, vol. 217, no. 1130, pp. 295–305.
Fowler, MJ 2013, ‘Structural data bias in the digital age’, in PM Dight (ed.), Slope Stability 2013: Proceedings of the 2013 International Symposium on Slope Stability in Open Pit Mining and Civil Engineering, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, pp. 219–225, 10.36487/ACG_rep/1308_09_Fowler
Grenon, M & Hadjigeorgiou, J 2003, ‘Drift reinforcement design based on discontinuity network modelling’, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 833–845, doi.org/10.1016/S1365-1609(03)00044-3
Grenon, M, Landry, A, Hadjigeorgiou, J & Lajoie, PL 2015, ‘Contribution to drift design using discrete fracture network modelling at the Éléonore Mine in Canada’, in Y Potvin (ed.), Design Methods 2015: Proceedings of the International Seminar on Design Methods in Underground Mining, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 339–350, doi.org/10.36487/ACG_rep
/1511_20_Grenon
Grenon, M, Landry, A, Hadjigeorgiou, J & Lajoie, PL 2017, ‘Discrete fracture network based drift stability at the Éléonore mine’, Mining Technology, vol. 126, no. 1, pp. 22–33, doi.org/10.1080/14749009.2016.1199296
Gwynn, XP, Brown, MC & Mohr, PJ 2013, ‘Combined use of traditional core logging and televiewer imaging for practical geotechnical data collection’, in PM Dight (ed.), Slope Stability 2013: Proceedings of the 2013 International Symposium on Slope Stability in Open Pit Mining and Civil Engineering, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 261–272, doi.org/10.36487
/ACG_rep/1308_13_Mohr
Hadjigeorgiou, J & Grenon, M 2017a, ‘Drift reinforcement design based on Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) modeling’, in X-T Feng (ed.), Rock Mechanics and Engineering, CRC Press, Boca Raton.
Hadjigeorgiou, J & Grenon, M 2017b, Drift Reinforcement Design Based on Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Modelling, Taylor & Francis Group, Miton Park, pp. 123–146.
Harris, P & Wesseloo, J 2015, mXrap, version 5, computer software, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, The University of Western Australia, Perth, mxrap.com
Hudson, JA & Harrison, JP 1997, Engineering Rock Mechanics, Elsevier, Oxford.
ISRM 1978a, ‘International society for rock mechanics commission on standardization of laboratory and field tests: Suggested methods for the quantitative description of discontinuities in rock masses’, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 319–368, doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(78)91472-9
ISRM 1978b, ‘Suggested methods for the quantitative description of discontinuities in rock masses’, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining, vol. 15, pp. 89–97.
Mauldon, M & Dershowitz, W 2000, ‘A multi-dimensional system of fracture abundance measures’, Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, pp. A474.
Montiel, E, Varona, P, Fernandez, C & Espinoza, Z 2020, ‘Use of discrete fracture networks in 3D numerical modelling for stability analysis in open pits’, in PM Dight (ed.), Slope Stability 2020: Proceedings of the 2020 International Symposium on Slope Stability in Open Pit Mining and Civil Engineering, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 913–926, doi.org/10.36487/ACG_repo/2025_60
Muaka, JJM, Duma, S, Mushangwe, P, Gardner, L, Chindedza, T, Walls, J & Joughin, WC 2017, ‘Modelling hard rock jointed pillars using a distinct element and discrete fracture network approach considering the effect of a clay-filled shear structure’, Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Deep and High Stress Mining, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, 10.36487/ACG_rep/1704_22_Muaka
Potvin, Y & Hadjigeorgiou, J 2020, Ground Support for underground mines, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth.
Priest, SD 1993, Discontinuity Analysis for Rock Engineering, Chapman and Hall, London.
Rogers, S, Elmo, D, Webb, G & Catalan, A 2010, ‘A discrete fracture network based approach to defining in situ, primary and secondary fragmentation distributions for the Cadia East panel cave project’, in Y Potvin (ed.), Caving 2010: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Block and Sublevel Caving, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 425–439, 10.36487/ACG_rep/1002_29_Rogers
Rogers, SF, Bewick, RP, Brzovic, A & Gaudreau, D 2017, ‘Integrating photogrammetry and discrete fracture network modelling for improved conditional simulation of underground wedge stability’, in J Wesseloo (ed.), Deep Mining 2017: Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Deep and High Stress Mining, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth,
pp. 599–610, doi.org/10.36487/ACG_rep/1704_40_Rogers
Schultz, RA 1996, ‘Relative scale and the strength and deformability of rock masses’, Journal of Structural Geology, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 1139–1149, doi.org/10.1016/0191-8141(96)00045-4
Slob, S, van Knapen, B, Hack, R, Turner, K & Kemeny, J 2005, ‘Method for automated discontinuity analysis of rock slopes with threedimensional laser scanning’, Transportation Research Record, vol. 1913, no. 1, pp. 187–194, doi.org/10.1177
/0361198105191300118
Staub, I, Fredriksson, A & Outters, N 2002, Strategy for a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model Development and Testing of the Theoretical Approach, Svensk Kärnbränslehantering AB, Sweden.
Sturzenegger, M & Stead, D 2009, ‘Close-range terrestrial digital photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning for discontinuity characterization on rock cuts’, Engineering Geology, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 163–182, doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2009.03.004
Vakili, A, Teet, R, Woo, K-S, de Veth, A & Penney, AR 2014, ‘Understanding critical parameters in stochastic discrete fracture networks’, Proceedings of The First International Conference on Discrete Fracture Network Engineering.
Valerio, M, Rogers, S, Lawrence, KP, Byrne, C, Veltin, K, Darakijan, T, Gaida, M, Cambio, D & Chapin, GK 2021, ‘Improving bench design through discrete fracture network analysis’, in PM Dight (ed.), SSIM 2021: Second International Slope Stability in Mining, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 457–472, doi.org/10.36487/ACG_repo/2135_29
Vazaios, I, Vlachopoulos, N & Diederichs, MS 2017, ‘Integration of lidar-based structural input and discrete fracture network generation for underground applications’, Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 2227–2251, doi.org/10.1007/s10706-017-0240-x
Vyazmensky, A 2008, Numerical Modelling of Surface Subsidence Associated with Block Cave Mining Using a Finite Element/Discrete Element Approach, PowerPoint presentation, dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.4069.3843
Wang, X 2005, Stereological Interpretation of Rock Fracture Traces on Borehole Walls and Other Cylindrical Surfaces, PhD thesis, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg.
Weir, F, de Ambrosis, A & Fowler, M 2014, ‘Discrete fracture network modelling for tunnel design in the Sydney Basin’, Proceedings of the 15th Australasian Tunnelling Conference, Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Melbourne, pp. 219–228.
Weir, FM & Fowler, MJ 2016, ‘Discrete fracture network modelling for hard rock slopes’, in PM Dight (ed.), APSSIM 2016: Proceedings of the First Asia Pacific Slope Stability in Mining Conference, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth,
pp. 157–168, doi.org/10.36487/ACG_rep/1604_06_Weir
Wesseloo, J & Joughin, WC 2020, ‘Probability, risk and design’, in Y Potvin & J Hadjigeorgiou (eds), Ground Support for underground mines, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth. pp. 377–396.
Zhang, L & Einstein, HH 1998, ‘Estimating the mean trace length of rock discontinuities’, Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 217–235, doi.org/10.1007/s006030050022




© Copyright 2022, Australian Centre for Geomechanics (ACG), The University of Western Australia. All rights reserved.
Please direct any queries or error reports to repository-acg@uwa.edu.au