Authors: Liu, J; Zhang, C; Canbulat, I; Oh, J; Saydam, S

Open access courtesy of:

DOI https://doi.org/10.36487/ACG_repo/2205_79

Cite As:
Liu, J, Zhang, C, Canbulat, I, Oh, J & Saydam, S 2022, 'A review of rockbursts associated with block caving', in Y Potvin (ed.), Caving 2022: Fifth International Conference on Block and Sublevel Caving, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 1147-1160, https://doi.org/10.36487/ACG_repo/2205_79

Download citation as:   ris   bibtex   endnote   text   Zotero


Abstract:
Block caving is one of the most cost-competitive underground mining methods available today owing to its low cost and mining efficiency in the application of low-grade and high-volume mineral extraction such as copper and gold. Given that resources are increasingly being discovered at greater depths throughout the world, the combination of stress concentration resulting from the depth of cover, complicated geotechnical conditions such as geological structures, and disturbance caused by mining activities makes rockburst a challenging geotechnical problem. When a rockburst occurs, the release of a sudden amount of radiated seismic energy may cause rock fragments to eject from the excavation vicinity and may have a significant impact on the safety and productivity of mining. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the stateof-the-art in the area of rockbursts associated with block caving covering various contributing factors and rockburst mechanisms based on existing cases. With an increasing understanding of contributing factors, failure modes and mechanisms behind rockbursts associated with block caving, prediction and prevention of mining-induced rockburst can be improved in the future.

Keywords: rockbursts, block caving mines, hard rock

References:
ACIL Allen Consulting 2019, The Economic Impact of the Minerals Research Institute of Western Australia, ACIL Allen.
Angin, PP, Wattimena, RK, Sahara, DP & Purba, AM 2019, ‘Microseismic analysis to identify stress redistribution and minimise rockburst in DMLZ cave abutment, PT Freeport Indonesia’, 5th ISRM Young Scholars' Symposium on Rock Mechanics and International Symposium on Rock Engineering for Innovative Future, OnePetro, Japan, pp. 851–856.
Araneda, O & Sougarret, A 2007 ‘Lessons learned in cave mining: El Teniente 1997–2007’, Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Block and Sub-level Caving, The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy.
Brady, BH & Brown, ET 2006, Rock Mechanics: For Underground Mining, Kluwer Academic Publishers, London.
Brummer, RK, Li, H, Moss, A & Casten, T 2006, ‘The transition from open pit to underground mining: an unusual slope failure mechanism at Palabora’, Proceedings International Symposium on Stability of Rock Slopes, Cape Town, The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, pp. 411–420.
Cai, M 2016, 'Prediction and prevention of rockburst in metal mines–A case study of Sanshandao gold mine', Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 204–211.
Catalan, A, Onederra, I & Chitombo, G 2017, 'Evaluation of intensive preconditioning in block and panel caving–Part I, quantifying the effect on intact rock', Mining Technology, vol. 126, no. 4, pp. 209–220.
Chitombo, G 2010, 'Cave mining: 16 years after Laubscher's 1994 paper'Cave mining–state of the art’, Mining Technology, vol. 119, no. 3, pp. 132–141.
Cuello, DA, Landeros, PP & Cavieres, PH 2010, 'The use of a three-dimensional elastic model to identify rock mass damaged areas in the undercut level at Reservas Norte sector', in M Van Sint Jan & Y Potvin (eds), Deep Mining 2010: Proceedings of the Fifth International Seminar on Deep and High Stress Mining, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 437–450.
de Beer, W, Jalbout, A, Riyanto, E, Ginting, A, Sullivan, M & Collins, DS 2017, 'The design, optimisation, and use of the seismic system at the deep and high-stress block cave Deep Mill Level Zone mine', in M Hudyma & Y Potvin (eds), UMT 2017: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Underground Mining Technology, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth,
pp. 233–245.
Dunlop, R & Belmonte, A 2005, 'The April 22nd, 2003 Rockburst in the Sub 6 Sector, El Teniente Mine—A Case History', in Y Potvin & M Hudyma (eds), RaSiM6: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Rockburst and Seismicity in Mines, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 291–297.
Duplancic, P 2001, Characterisation of Caving Mechanisms Through Analysis of Stress and Seismicity, PhD Thesis, The University of Western Australia, Perth.
Durrheim, R, Roberts, MKC, Haile, AT, Hagan, TO, Jager, AJ, Handley, MF, Spottiswoode, SM & Ortlepp, W 1998, ‘Factors influencing the severity of rockburst damage in South African gold mines’, Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, vol. 98, no. 2, pp. 53–57.
Eberhardt, E, Stead, D, Elmo, D, Dunbar, S, Scoble, M, Moss, A, Sturzenegger, M, Vyazmensky, A, Tollenaar, R & Eissa, H 2007, ‘Transition from surface to underground mining: Integrated mapping, monitoring and modeling data to better understand complex rock mass interaction’, 13th ISRM International Congress of Rock Mechanics, Perth.
Fiscor, S 2010, 'Major open-pit copper mines move underground', Engineering and Mining Journal, vol. 211, no. 5, p. 46.
Flores-Gonzalez, G 2019, 'Major hazards associated with cave mining: are they manageable?', in J Wesseloo (ed.), MGR 2019: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Mining Geomechanical Risk, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 31–46.
Flores, G & Catalan, A 2019, 'A transition from a large open pit into a novel “macroblock variant” block caving geometry at Chuquicamata mine, Codelco Chile', Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 549–561.
Glazer, SN & Hepworth, N 2005, 'Seismicity Induced by Cave Mining, Palabora Experience', in Y Potvin & M Hudyma (eds), RaSiM6: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Rockburst and Seismicity in Mines, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 281–289.
Gu, R 2013, Distinct Element Model Analyses of Unstable Failures in Underground Coal Mines, PhD thesis, Colorado School of Mines.
He, M, Gong, W, Wang, J, Qi, P, Tao, Z, Du, S & Peng, Y 2014, 'Development of a novel energy-absorbing bolt with extraordinarily large elongation and constant resistance', International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, vol. 67, pp. 29–42.
He, M, Xia, H, Jia, X, Gong, W, Zhao, F & Liang, K 2012, 'Studies on classification, criteria and control of rockbursts', Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 97–114.
He, S, Chen, T, Vennes, I, He, X, Song, D, Chen, J & Mitri, H 2020, 'Dynamic Modelling of Seismic Wave Propagation due to a Remote Seismic Source: A Case Study', Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, vol. 53, .
Hudyma, M, Potvin, Y & Allison, D 2008a, 'Seismic monitoring of the Northparkes Lift 2 block cave-Part 2 production caving', Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, vol. 108, no. 7, pp. 421–430.
Hudyma, M, Potvin, Y & Allison, D 2008b, 'Seismic monitoring of the Northparkes Lift 2 block cave-Part I undercutting', Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, vol. 108, no. 7, pp. 405-419.
Ivars, DM, Pierce, ME, Darcel, C, Reyes-Montes, J, Potyondy, DO, Young, RP & Cundall, PA 2011, 'The synthetic rock mass approach for jointed rock mass modelling', International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 219–244.
Kaiser, P & Cai, M 2018, Rockburst Support Reference Book – Volume I: Rockburst Phenomenon and Support Characteristics, MIRARCO – Mining Innovation, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, webresources/filedownload/Cai-Kaiser(2018)-Rockburst-Support-Vol1.pdf.
Kaiser, P, Diederichs, M, Martin, C, Sharp, J & Steiner, W 2000, ‘Underground works in hard rock tunnelling and mining’, ISRM International Symposium, OnePetro.
Kaiser, PK 1996, Canadian Rockburst Support Handbook, Geomechanics Research Centre.
Kaiser, PK, Kim, B, Bewick, RP & Valley, B 2011, 'Rock mass strength at depth and implications for pillar design', Mining Technology, vol. 120, no. 3, pp. 170–179.
Larsson, K 2004, Seismicity in Mines: A Review, technical report, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå.
Li, CC, Mikula, P, Simser, B, Hebblewhite, B, Joughin, W, Feng, XW & Xu, NW 2019, 'Discussions on rockburst and dynamic ground support in deep mines', Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 1110–1118, .
Lynch, R, Meyer, S, Lotter, E & Lett, J 2018, 'Tracking cave shape development with microseismic data', in Y Potvin & J Jakubec (eds), Caving 2018: Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Block and Sublevel Caving, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 555–564.
Malovichko, D, Cuello, D & Rojas, E 2018, ‘Analysis of damaging seismic event on 24 December 2011 in the Pilar Norte sector of El Teniente mine’, in Y Potvin & J Jakubec (eds), Caving 2018: Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Block and Sublevel Caving, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 637–650.
Martin, C & Maybee, W 2000, 'The strength of hard-rock pillars', International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 1239–1246.
Mazaira, A & Konicek, P 2015, 'Intense rockburst impacts in deep underground construction and their prevention', Canadian Geotechnical Journal, vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 1426–1439.
Mendecki, A, Van Aswegen, G & Mountfort, P 1999, ‘A guide to routine seismic monitoring in mines', A Handbook on Rock Engineering Practice for Tabular Hard Rock Mines, p. 35.
Moss, A, Diachenko, S & Townsend, P 2006, ‘Interaction between the block cave and the pit slopes at Palabora mine’, Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, vol. 10, pp. 479–484.
Ngidi, S & Pretorius, D 2010, ‘Impact of poor fragmentation on cave management’, in Y Potvin (ed), Caving 2010: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Block and Sublevel Caving, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 593–601.
Ojeda, J, Hernandez, E, Ossand6n, G, Enrione, A & Mestre, A 1980, El porfido cuprifero El Teniente, internal report, Superintendencia de Geologia, El Teniente, Codelco.
Orrego, C, Cuello, D & Rojas, E 2011, 'Determination of induced stress condition inside Pilar Norte sector', Mining Technology, vol. 120, no. 1, pp. 45–52.
Ortlepp, WD & Stacey, TR 1994, 'Rockburst Mechanisms in Tunnels and Shafts', Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 59–65.
Ozbay, M, Ryder, JA & Jager, A 1995, 'The design of pillar systems as practised in shallow hard-rock tabular mines in South Africa', Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 7–18.
Pardo, C 2012, Back Analysis of Intensive Rock Mass Damage at the El Teniente Mine, PhD thesis, Curtin University.
Potvin, Y, Hudyma, M & Jewell, RJ 2000, ‘Rockburst and seismic activity in underground Australian mines - An introduction to a new research project’, ISRM International Symposium.
Potvin, Y, Jarufe, J & Wesseloo, J 2010, 'Interpretation of seismic data and numerical modelling of fault reactivation at El Teniente, Reservas Norte sector', Mining Technology, vol. 119, no. 3, pp. 175–181.
Primadiansyah, A, Simanjuntak, K, Leatemia, C & Pratomo, F 2020, ‘Ground support selection and development sequences for mass excavation crusher 504 in a deep, hard rock environment’, ISRM International Symposium-EUROCK 2022, OnePetro.
Rimmelin, R, Chitombo, G & Rojas, E 2020, ‘Hydraulic fracturing in cave mining: Opportunities for improvement’, MassMin 2020: Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference & Exhibition on Mass Mining, University of Chile, pp. 275–288.
Rojas, E, Cavieres, P, Dunlop, R & Gaete, S 2000, 'Control of induced seismicity at El Teniente mine, Codelco Chile', Proceedings Massmin 2000, pp. 777–781.
Rojas, E, Dunlop, R, Bonani, A, Santander, E, Celis, S & Belmonte, A 2004, ‘Seismic and support behaviour, a case study: the April 22nd, 2003 Rockburst, Reservas Norte sector, El Teniente Mine, Codelco Chile’, Ground Support in Mining and Underground Construction: Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Ground Support, Perth, Australia, Taylor & Francis, p. 163.
Rojas, E, Molina, R & Cavieres, P 2001, 'Preundercut caving in El Teniente Mine, Chile', Underground Mining Methods: Engineering Fundamentals and International Case Studies, pp. 417–423.
Sainoki, A & Mitri, HS 2014, 'Dynamic behaviour of mining-induced fault slip', International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, vol. 66, pp. 19–29.
Wang, C, Cao, A, Zhang, C & Canbulat, I 2020, 'A new method to assess coal burst risks using dynamic and static loading analysis', Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 1113–1128.
Wei, C, Zhang, C, Canbulat, I, Song, Z & Dai, L 2022, 'A review of investigations on ground support requirements in coal burst-prone mines', International Journal of Coal Science & Technology, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 13.
Woo, K-S, Eberhardt, E, Rabus, B, Stead, D & Vyazmensky, A 2012, 'Integration of field characterisation, mine production and InSAR monitoring data to constrain and calibrate 3-D numerical modelling of block caving-induced subsidence', International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, vol. 53, pp. 166–178.
Yang, J, Chen, W, Zhao, W, Tan, X, Tian, H, Yang, D & Ma, C 2017, 'Geohazards of tunnel excavation in interbedded layers under high in situ stress', Engineering Geology, vol. 230, pp. 11–22.
Zhang, C, Canbulat, I, Hebblewhite, B & Ward, CR 2017, 'Assessing coal burst phenomena in mining and insights into directions for future research', International Journal of Coal Geology, vol. 179, pp. 28–44.




© Copyright 2022, Australian Centre for Geomechanics (ACG), The University of Western Australia. All rights reserved.
Please direct any queries or error reports to repository-acg@uwa.edu.au