Authors: Maree, RC

Open access courtesy of:


Cite As:
Maree, RC 2023, 'Towards the assessment of residual biodiversity impacts to support mining rehabilitation and offsets decision-making', in B Abbasi, J Parshley, A Fourie & M Tibbett (eds), Mine Closure 2023: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Mine Closure, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth,

Download citation as:   ris   bibtex   endnote   text   Zotero

Global concerns related to the loss of biodiversity and the benefits it provides are rapidly increasing. The extractives industry is responding to this threat, demonstrated by members of the International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM) who acknowledge that miners, as significant land and water stewards, have responsibility to understand their footprint, mitigate impact and maximise opportunities for the conservation and restoration of nature. This study represents a retrospective application of the biodiversity offset principles for an operational site that has been active for approximately 12 years. Therefore, strict adherence to the mitigation hierarchy was not possible. This assessment presents a case study for the merits of a retrospective application of the mitigation hierarchy, whilst also highlighting aspects to proactively influence decision-making for new projects and future extensions to existing mining operations. Within the scope of the assessed BMUs, the study demonstrates that impacts to BV have either been avoided, resulted in a net gain in BV or resulted in a net loss of BV considering existing offset opportunities. In all cases, the rehabilitation gains do not achieve NNL, requiring offset opportunities to reach NNL or NPI.

Keywords: biodiversity value, residual impacts, mitigation hierarchy, offsets, biodiversity losses, biodiversity gains, no net loss, net positive impact, rehabilitation, restoration, closure criteria, mine closure plans

Australia Department of Industry, Innovation and Science 2016, Mine Rehabilitation, Leading Practice Sustainable Development Program for the Mining Industry,
Business and Biodiversity Offsets Programme (BBOP) 2012, Biodiversity Offset Design Handbook-Updated, BBOP, Washington, D.C.,
Fauna and Flora International 2017, The Mitigation Hierarchy, No Net Loss and Net Positive Impact,
International Council on Mining and Metals 2019, Integrated Mine Closure Good Practice Guide, 2nd Edition
International Council on Mining and Metals,
International Union for Conservation of Nature 2016, Policy on Biodiversity Offsets, IUCN,
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2016, Biodiversity Offsets, Effective design and implementation, Policy Highlights, OECD,
United Nations Environment Programme,
World Bank Group 2016, Biodiversity Offsets: A User Guide,

© Copyright 2024, Australian Centre for Geomechanics (ACG), The University of Western Australia. All rights reserved.
View copyright/legal information
Please direct any queries or error reports to