Yulianto, A & Suwarno, I 2006, 'Properties and Quality of Soils and Nutrients Status of Plants on Cilacap Iron Sands Mine Sites', in AB Fourie & M Tibbett (eds), Mine Closure 2006: Proceedings of the First International Seminar on Mine Closure
, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 657-666, https://doi.org/10.36487/ACG_repo/605_57
Iron sand deposits are widely distributed in Indonesia. They are found in costal areas of south Java, west
Sumatra, South Sulawesi and north of West Irian Islands. Deposit of iron sand on south coast of Cilacap
Regency, Central Java Province is the first iron sand deposit exploited by PT Antam Tbk, a state mining
enterprise. Mining of iron sands in this area was started in 1970 and closed in 2003. In contrast with other
post mining lands, most iron sand post mining lands in Cilacap (60%) were utilized as agricultural lands (PT
Antam Tbk, 2005).
Mining of iron sands at Cilacap iron sand mine site (ISMS) was carried out by open pit mining with
hydraulic mining and back-filling systems. This mining method disturbs chemical, physical and biological
properties of soil, which in turn causes soil and environmental degradation. Soil degradation of post mining
lands includes: concentrating elements potentially toxic to plants; concentrating heavy metal hazardous to
human; or degradation of the chemical, physical and biological properties of soils. Because soil is plant
growth medium, soil degradation of post mining lands affects plants grown on this soil. On heavily degraded
soils of post mining lands, the growth of plants may be restricted; or plants may grow well, but their products
are harmful for human health to be consumed.
Alloway, B.J. (1995) Introduction, Heavy Metal in Soils, Second edition, Alloway, B.J. (ed) Blackie academic &
professional, Glasgow, pp. 3-10.
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Djaenudin, D., Marwan, Subagyo, H. Mulyani, A. and Suharta, N. (2000) Kriteria kesesuaian lahan untuk komoditas
pertanian, Puslitannak, Badan penelitian dan pengembangan pertanian, Departemen pertanian.
Foth, H.D. (1984) Fundamentals of soil science, Seventh edition, John Willey and Sons, Inc.
Jones, J. B., Wolf, B. and Mills, H.A. (1991) Plant analysis handbook, Micro-macro Publishing, Inc.
Kabata-Pendias, A. (1995) Agricultural problems related to excessive trace metal contents of soil, Heavy Metals
(Problems and Solutions), Salomons, W., Foerstner, U. and Made, P. (eds), Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 79-123.
Landon, J.R. (1984) Booker tropical soil manual, Booker agriculture international limited.
McLean, E.O. (1973) Testing soils for pH and lime requirement, Soil Testing and Plant Analysis, Revised edition,
Walsh, L.M. and Beaton, J.D. (eds), Soil Science Society of America, Inc., Madison, pp. 77-95.
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Third edition, Westerman, R.L. (ed), Soil Science Society of America, Inc., Madison, pp. 359-387.
PT Antam Tbk (2005) Rencana penutupan tambang dan pascatambang pasir besi Cilacap.
PT Antam Tbk (2006) Sifat dan kualitas tanah serta kandungan beberapa unsur dalam tanaman budidaya di lokasi
pertambangan pasir besi Cilacap, Laporan akhir penelitian.
Staf Pusat Penelitian Tanah (1983) Term of reference tipe A. No. 59/1983. P3MT, PPT.
Sulaeman, Suparto and Eviati (2005) Petunjuk teknis analisis kimia tanah, tanaman, air dan pupuk, Balai penelitian
tanah, Badan penelitian dan pengembangan pertanian, Departemen pertanian.
Properties and Quality of Soils and Nutrients Status of Plants
on Cilacap Iron Sands Mine Sites
A. Yulianto, I. Suwarno
666 Mine Closure 2006, Perth, Australia