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million tonnes of alumina per annum. During the Bayer Process, two distinct residue fractions are produced
and separated before disposal. These residues are differentiated into a fine fraction 'red mud' and a coarse
fraction of 'process sand'. The principal residue, red mud, is produced at a rate of approximately 1.05 million
tonnes per annum and about 0.15 million tonnes of process sand is also produced. There are an estimated 84
global alumina producers generating an estimated 65+ M tonnes of processing residue per annum (Prasad et
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