Mikula, PA & Lee, MF 2007, 'Empirical Performance Chart for Ground Support in Seismic Conditions at Mt Charlotte', in Y Potvin (ed.), Deep Mining 2007: Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar on Deep and High Stress Mining
, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 325-334, https://doi.org/10.36487/ACG_repo/711_24
Methods of estimating dynamic-capable ground support requirements from first principles are limited by the
complexities of seismic event mechanisms, the susceptibility of excavations to damage and the behaviour of
ground support systems. Some of these complexities were bypassed at the Mt Charlotte gold mine by
adopting an alternative site-specific empirical approach, based on underground observations of seismic
damage and the performance of ground support.
Relationships were derived between peak particle velocity due to seismicity, the energy absorption capacity
of ground support systems, and the damage occurring in excavations. A ground support design chart was
developed for dynamic situations to enable estimation of the minimum required energy absorption capacity
for ground support. Alternatively, given a particular seismic event magnitude and location, the chart can be
used to indicate likely ground support performance in dynamic situations, in terms of the expected damage to
The chart has been successfully applied to assess dynamic ground support requirements in development used
to mine remnants in the seismically active ROB5 stoping block. A key advantage of this empirical approach
is that it is calibrated to the peculiarities of the specific mine site.
ACG (2007) MS-RAP data. Australian Centre for Geomechanics internet site
Albrecht, J. and Sharrock, G. (2006) A model to forecast rockburst damage. 3rd International Seminar on Deep and High
Stress Mining Conference, Quebec, October.
Ansell, A. (2004) A finite element model for dynamic analysis of shotcrete on rock subjected to blast induced
vibrations. Shotcrete: More Engineering Developments – Barnard (ed), Taylor and Francis, London, pp. 15-26.
Fraser, S.J., Mikula, P.A., Lee, M.F., Dickson, B.L. and Kinnersly, E. (2006) Data mining mining data – order vector
quantisation and examples of its application to mine geotechnical data sets. 6th International Geology
Conference, Darwin, 22–23 August.
Heal, D. (2005) Ground support for rockbursting conditions. Section 8, Advanced Geomechanics – Theory and
Practice. Course Number 0502w presented by Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Ibis Hotel, Perth, March.
Heal, D., Potvin, Y. and Hudyma, M. (2006) Evaluating rockburst damage potential in underground mining. 41st U.S.
Symposium on Rock Mechanics, Colorado, June.
Kaiser, P.K, McCreath, D.R. and Tannant, D.D. (1995). Rockburst Support Handbook, Geomechanics Research Centre,
Laurentian University, Canada.
Kaiser, P.K., Tannant, D.D. and McCreath, D.R. (1996) Drift support in burst-prone ground. CIM Bulletin, Vol. 89,
No. 998, pp. 131-138.
Kaiser, P.K., Tannant, D.D., McCreath, D.R. and Jesenak, P. (1992) Rockburst damage assessment procedure. Rock
Support in Mining and Underground Construction, Kaiser and McCreath (eds), Balkema, Rotterdam,
Kempin, M., Sprague, A., Narendranathan, S., Mikula, P.A. and Lee, M.F. (2007) Destressing the ROB5 orebody using
Tight Slot Blasting at Mt Charlotte Mine. 4th International Seminar on Deep and High Stress Mining, Perth,
Li, T. (2002) Dynamic capable ground support rationale and system development. Presentation to the GCG (WA)
Workshop on Dynamic Capable Ground Support, 12th November, 2002, Kalgoorlie.
Mikula, P.A. and Lee, M.F. (2000) Bulk low-grade mining at Mt Charlotte Mine. Proceedings MassMin 2000,
Brisbane, pp 623-635.
Ortlepp, W.D. (1997) Rock Fracture and Rockbursts. Monograph M9, The South African Institute of Mining and
Wilson, J.A. and Lam, N.T.K. (2006) Recent developments in the research and practice of earthquake engineering in
Australia. Australian Earthquake Engineering Conference, Canberra, 24-26 November.
Empirical Performance Chart for Ground Support in Seismic Conditions at Mt Charlotte P.A. Mikula, M.F. Lee
334 Deep Mining 07, Perth, Australia