Stanchits, S 2008, 'Acoustic Emission Analysis of Initiation and Propagation of Faults in Brittle Rock and Compaction Bands in Porous Rock', in Y Potvin, J Carter, A Dyskin & R Jeffrey (eds), Proceedings of the First Southern Hemisphere International Rock Mechanics Symposium
, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 69-81.
Formation of shear fractures in granite and basalt samples, as well as initiation and propagation of compaction bands in Bleurswiller and Bentheim sandstones at different loading conditions were investigated by means of advanced Acoustic Emission (AE) analysis. For brittle fracture we have found that regardless of the boundary conditions and loading rates, process of brittle failure of rocks can be separated into two main stages: (1) accumulation of uncorrelated tensile cracks and (2) appearance of shear cracks interconnecting a network of previously formed tensile cracks. At the fracture initiation, the majority of all AEs could be identified as tensile type events and fractal dimension analysis confirms appearance of non-correlated and randomly distributed tensile cracks. During the second stage, fracture propagation involves significant crack-induced dilatancy, the percentage of tensile events decreased significantly and shear-type AE sources dominated during the later fracturing. In the case of porous rock, nucleation of compaction bands could be clearly demonstrated by the appearance of AE clusters inside the samples. Structural analysis of deformed specimens showed excellent agreement between the locations of AE clusters and the positions of compaction bands. AE analysis confirms progressive coalescence and growth of compaction bands perpendicular to the loading direction. First motion polarity analysis of AEs shows dominantly pore collapse type events. Therefore, detailed analysis of AE allows us recognition of the current stage of brittle rock fracture, and transition between these stages can be reliably identified by monitoring of AE and velocity characteristics. In the case of porous rock initiation and propagation of compaction bands, which significantly reduces permeability, these could also be reliably identified and monitored by advanced AE analysis.
Baud, P., Klein, E. and Wong, T-F. (2004) Compaction localization in porous sandstones: Spatial evolution of damage and acoustic emission activity, Journal of Structural Geology, 26, pp. 603–624.
Bonner, B.P. (1974) Shear wave birefringence in dilating granite, Geophysical Research Letters, 1, pp. 217–220.
DiGiovanni, A., Fredrich, J.T., Holcomb, D.J. and Olsson, W.A. (2000) Micromechanics of compaction in an analogue reservoir sandstone, In: J. Girard, M. Liebman, C. Breeds and T. Doe (editors), Proceedings North American Rock Mechanics Symposium, July 31, A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 1153–1158.
Fortin, J., Baud, P. and Wong, T-F. (2003) Mechanical compaction of Diemelstadt: From compacting shear bands to pure compaction bands, paper presented at EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly, France.
Fortin, J., Schubnel, A. and Gueguen, Y. (2005) Elastic wave velocities and permeability evolution during compaction of Bleurswiller sandstone, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 42, pp. 873–889.
Fortin, J., Stanchits, S., Dresen, G. and Gueguen, E. (2006) Acoustic emission and velocities associated with the formation of compaction bands in sandstone, Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, B10203.
Glaser, S.D. and Nelson, P.P. (1992) Acoustic emissions produced by discrete fracture in rock. Part 2. Kinematics of crack growth during controlled Mode I and Mode II loading of rock. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 10, pp. 53–67.
Hadley, K. (1975) Dilatancy: Further Studies in Crystalline Rocks, PhD-Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 202 p.
Haimson, B.C. (2001) Fracture-like borehole breakouts in high porosity sandstone: Are they caused by compaction bands? Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part A, 26, pp. 15–20.
Holcomb, D. (1993) General Theory of the Kaiser Effect, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences and Geomechanics Abstracts, 30, pp. 929–935.
Holcomb, D.J. and Olsson, W.A. (2003) Compaction localization and fluid flow, Journal of Geophysical Research, 108(B6), 2290,
Janssen, C., Wagner, F.C., Zang, A. and Dresen, G. (2001) Fracture process zone in granite – a microstructural analysis, International Journal of Earth Sciences, 90, 1, pp. 46–59.
Klein, E., Baud, P., Reuschle, T. and Wong, T-F. (2001) Mechanical behaviour and failure mode of Bentheim sandstone under triaxial compression, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part A, 26, pp. 21–25.
Labuz, J.F., Cattaneo, S. and Chen, L.H. (2001) Acoustic emission at failure in quasi-brittle materials. Construction and Building Materials, 15, pp. 225–233.
Lei, X., Nishizawa, O., Kusunose, K. and Satoh, T. (1992) Fractal structure of the hypocenter distributions and focal mechanism solutions of acoustic emission in two granites of different grain sizes, Journal of Physics of the Earth, 40, pp. 617–634.
Lei, X., Kusunose, K., Rao, M.V.M.S., Nishizawa, O. and Satoh, T. (2000) Quasi-static fault growth and cracking in homogeneous brittle rock under triaxial compression using acoustic emission monitoring, Journal of Geophysical Research, 105, pp. 6127–6139.
Leonard, M. and Kennett, B.L.N. (1999) Multi-component autoregressive techniques for the analysis of seismograms. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 113(1-4), pp. 247–263.
Lockner, D.A., Walsh, J.B. and Byerlee, J.D. (1977) Changes in seismic velocity and attenuation during deformation of granite, Journal of Geophysical Research, 82, pp. 5374–5378.
Melin, S. (1989) Why are crack paths in concrete and mortar different from those in PMMA? Material Construction, 22, pp. 23–27.
Menendez, B., Zhu, W. and Wong, T-F. (1996) Micromechanics of brittle faulting and cataclastic flow in Berea sandstone, Journal of Structural Geology, 18, pp. 1–16.
Mollema, P.N. and Antonellini, M.A. (1996) Compaction bands: A structural analog for anti-mode I crack in aeloian sandstone, Tectonophysics, 267, pp. 209–228.
Nelder, J. and Mead, R. (1965) A simplex method for function minimisation. Computer Journal, 7, pp. 308–312.
Nur, A. (1971), Effects of Stress on Velocity Anisotropy in Rocks with Cracks, Journal of Geophysical Research, 76, pp. 2021–2034.
O'Connell, R.J. and Budiansky, B. (1974) Seismic velocities in dry and saturated cracked solids, Journal of Geophysical Research, 79, pp. 5412–5426.
Olsson, W.A. (1999) Theoretical and experimental investigation of compaction bands in porous rock, Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, pp. 7219–7228.
Soga, N., Mizutani, H., Spetzler, H. and Martin, R.J. III. (1978) The effect of dilatancy on velocity anisotropy in Westerly Granite, Journal of Geophysical Research, 83, pp. 4451–4458.
Stanchits, S., Zang, A. and Dresen, G. (2001) Focal mechanisms of acoustic emission events during fault propagation and friction sliding, Eos Transactions, AGU, 82(47), Fall Meeting Supplements, Abstract T51A-0847.
Stanchits, S. and Dresen, G. (2003) Separation of Tensile and Shear Cracks Based on Acoustic Emission Analysis of Rock Fracture, International Symposium Non-Destructive Testing in Civil Engineering (NDT-CE) (Berlin 2003), 107 p.
Stanchits, S., Vinciguerra S. and Dresen, G. (2006) Ultrasonic Velocities, Acoustic Emission Characteristics and Crack Damage of Basalt and Granite, Pure and Applied Geophysics, 163, pp. 974–993.
Vajdova, V., Baud, P. and Wong, T-F. (2004) Permeability evolution during localized deformation in Bentheim sandstone, Journal of Geophysical Research, 109, B10406,
Vinciguerra, S., Trovato, C., Meredith, P.G. and Benson, P.M. (2005) Relating seismic velocities, thermal cracking and permeability in Mt. Etna and Iceland basalts. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 42/7-8, pp. 900–910.
Walsh, J.B. (1965) The effect of cracks on the compressibility of rock, Journal of Geophysical Research, 70, pp. 381–389.
Wong, T-F., David, C. and Zhu, W. (1997) The transition from brittle faulting to cataclastic flow in porous sandstone: Mechanical deformation, Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, pp. 3009–3025.
Zang, A., Wagner, F.C., Stanchits, S., Dresen, G., Andresen, R. and Haidekker, M.A. (1998) Source analysis of acoustic emissions in Aue granite cores under symmetric and asymmetric compressive loads, Geophysical Journal International, 135, pp. 1113–1130.
Zang, A., Wagner, F.C., Stanchits, S., Janssen, C. and Dresen, G. (2000) The fracture process zone in granite, Journal of Geophysical Research, 105, B10, pp. 23,651–23,661.
Zietow, W.K. and Labuz, J.F. (1998) Measurement of the intrinsic process zone in rock using acoustic emission. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 35, pp. 291–299.