Authors: Chong, WL; Haque, A; Ranjith, PG; Shahinuzzaman, A

Purchase Paper

Cite As:
Chong, WL, Haque, A, Ranjith, PG & Shahinuzzaman, A 2008, 'Lateral Load Capacity of Single Piles Socketed into Jointed Rocks — A Review', in Y Potvin, J Carter, A Dyskin & R Jeffrey (eds), Proceedings of the First Southern Hemisphere International Rock Mechanics Symposium, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 297-309.

Download citation as:   ris   bibtex   endnote   text   Zotero


Abstract:
Pile foundations are commonly used world-wide in the multi-billion dollar foundation industry to provide support for high lateral loads. Substantial research has been conducted in the past on the performance of laterally loaded piles founded in soils and many field tests have been undertaken. However, the same cannot be said for socketed piles in a jointed rock mass. The overall strength and the stiffness of a jointed rock mass are highly variable depending on the joint spacing, orientation, joint persistence, and joint characteristics such as water pressure, joint roughness and infill. All these factors may have significant effect on the lateral load capacity of single piles. Therefore, an understanding of laterally loaded pile behaviour in a jointed rock mass is important in designing foundations for critical infrastructure. In this paper, a comprehensive review of existing methods of estimating lateral load capacity of single piles in jointed rocks has been undertaken. The current analytical and numerical methods are critically examined against each of the key parameters controlling the behaviour of a jointed rock mass. It is identified that current methods are inadequate in accounting for the complex jointing of rock mass including a number of joint sets and its orientations on the lateral capacity of rock socketed piles. This highlights the need for further research in this area using sophisticated numerical tools or extensive laboratory and field testing.

References:
Bieniawski, Z.T. (1976) Rock mass classifications in rock engineering. Proceedings of the Symposium on Exploration for Rock Engineering, Z.T. Bieniawski (editor), Vol. 1, A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Holland, pp. 97–106.
Bieniawski, Z.T. (1989) Engineering rock mass classification, Wiley, New York. p. 251.
Broms, B.B. (1964a) Lateral resistance of piles in cohesive soils. Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division, ASCE, Vol. 90, SM2, pp. 27–63.
Broms, B.B. (1964b) Lateral resistance of piles in cohesionless soils. Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division, ASCE, Vol. 90, SM2, pp. 123–156.
Carter, J.P. and Kulhawy, F.H. (1992) Analysis of laterally loaded shafts in rock. Journal of Geotechnical and Geo-environmental Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 118, No. 6, pp. 839–855.
Carter, J.P., Booker, J.R. and Yeung, S.K. (1986) Cavity expansion in cohesive and frictional soils. Geotechnique, 36(3), pp. 349–358.
Cho, K.H., Clark, S.C., Keaney, B.D., Gabr, M.A. and Borden, R.H. (2001) Laterally loaded Drilled Shafts Embedded in Soft Rock. Transportation Research Record 1772, pp. 3–11.
DiGioia, A., Hirany, A., Newman, F.B. and Rose, A.T. (1998) Rock-Socketed Drilled Shaft Design for Lateral Loads, IEEE New York, USA, pp. 62–68.
Francis, B. (2003) Laterally loaded piles in jointed soft rock masses. Masters of Engineering Science Thesis of Monash University, Clayton, Australia.
Gabr, M.A., Cho, K.H., Clark, S.C., Keaney, B.D. and Borden, R.H. (2002) P-y curves for laterally loaded drilled shafts embedded in weathered rock. Draft Report No. FHWA/NC/2002/08, North Carolina University, Raleigh, NC.
Hoek, E. and Brown, E.T. (1988) The Hoek–Brown criterion – a 1988 update. Proceedings 15th Canadian Rock Mechanics Symposium, University of Toronto.
Hoek, E. and Brown, E.T. (1997) Practical estimates of rock mass strength. International Journal of Rock Mechanics, Mineral Science and Geomechanics, 34 (8), pp. 1165–1186.
Johnston, I.W. and Choi, S.K. (1986) A synthetic soft rock for laboratory model studies. Geotechnique 36 (2), pp. 251–263.
Matlock, H. and Reese, L.C. (1960) Generalised solutions for laterally loaded piles. Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division, ASCE, Vol. 86, pp. 63–91.
Kulhawy, F.H. and Phoon, K.K. (1993) Drilled shaft side resistance in clay soil to rock. Proceedings on Conference on Design and Performance of Deep Foundations: Piles and Piers in Soil and Soft Rock, ASCE, Geotechnical Special Publication 38, pp. 172–183.
Poulos, H.G. (1971) Behaviour of laterally loaded piles: I-single piles. Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division, ACSE, Vol. 97, SM5, pp. 711–731.
Randolph, M.F. (1981) The response of flexible piles to lateral loading. Geotechnique, Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 247–259
Reese, L.C. (1997) Analysis of laterally loaded piles in weak rock. Journal of Geotechnical and Geo-environmental Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 123, No. 11, pp. 1010–1017.
To, A.C., Ernst, H. and Einstein, H.H. (2003) Lateral load capacity of drilled shafts in jointed rock. Journal of Geotechnical and Geo-environmental Engineering, Vol. 129, No. 8, pp. 711–726.
Tucker, K.D. and Askari, S. (1986) Interim report on evulation of SCE BIPILE computer program. Southern California Edison Company. Cited from Carter and Kulhawy (1992).
Vesic, A.S. (1961) Beam on elastic subgrade and Winkler hypothesis. Proceedings 5th International Conference Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Paris, Vol. 1, pp. 845–850.
Vu, T.T. (2006) Laterally loaded rock-socketed drilled shafts. Masters of Science Engineering Thesis of University of Wyoming, United States.
Yang, K. (2006) Analysis of Laterally Loaded Drilled Shafts in Rock. Doctor of Philosophy Thesis of University of Akron, United States.
Yang, K., Liang, R. and Nusairat, J. (2006a) Evaluation of lateral response of drilled shafts in rock. Foundation Analysis and Design; Innovative Methods (GSP 153), ASCE, pp. 249–256.
Yang, K. and Liang, R. (2006b) A 3D FEM modelling for laterally loaded drilled shafts in rock. GeoCongress 2006, ASCE, pp. 1–6.
Zhang, L., Ernst, H. and Einstein, H.H. (2000) Non-linear analysis of laterally loaded rock-socketed shafts. Journal of Geotechnical and Geo-environmental Engineering, Vol. 126, No. 11, pp. 955–68.




© Copyright 2019, Australian Centre for Geomechanics (ACG), The University of Western Australia. All rights reserved.
Please direct any queries or error reports to repository-acg@uwa.edu.au