Authors: Ojelede, ME; Annegarn, HJ; Mlondo, M

Paper is not available for download
Contact Us


Cite As:
Ojelede, ME, Annegarn, HJ & Mlondo, M 2008, 'Grain Size Analysis and Elemental Composition of the PM10 and PM5 Fractions of Gold-Tailings', in AB Fourie, M Tibbett, I Weiersbye & P Dye (eds), Mine Closure 2008: Proceedings of the Third International Seminar on Mine Closure, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 609-616,

Download citation as:   ris   bibtex   endnote   text   Zotero

Gold mine tailings deposits extend for approximately 110 km along the east-west mining corridor of the Witwatersrand. For residents living near uncovered tailings, dust-storm episodes, with high particulate loadings, are a perennial problem, especially during the austral spring. The prevalence of high wind speeds and low rainfall during August and September exacerbate the erosion of exposed tailings surfaces. Once considered only as a nuisance, the right to an environment not harmful to human health is enshrined in the Constitution of South Africa (Act 108 of 1996). A new Air Quality Management Act (No. 39 of 2004) has raised awareness regarding the health implications of the respirable and thoracic fractions of quartz-silica dust. Grain size distributions, and the elemental composition of the wind-suspendable fractions of these mine tailings, have not been reported previously. In this study, a suite of six bulk samples were selected from a sample bank of 40 collected from deposits ranging from Carltonville to Springs. Size class distributions were carried out in the diameter range 0.05 µm to 754 µm using a Malvern MS-14 Particle Analyzer with 64 channels, from which the respirable (dp < 5 µm) and thoracic (dp < 10 µm) components were calculated. Making use of a different method, tailings were screened for the respirable and thoracic mass (weight percentage), in order to validate the Malvern measurements and to obtain size class samples for chemical elemental analysis. This study appraised health-relevant particulates (respirable and thoracic) present in tailings, assessed elemental affinity for particle size and validates results obtained with the Malvern Particle Analyzer. Results from the size fractions dp < 10 µm and dp < 5 µm (range) accounted for 25 ± 7 (15 – 35) and 15 ± 4 (9 – 20) of the volume percentage. For the screening analysis, results show that the mean masses of particles in the dp <10 µm and dp < 5 µm ranges are 19 ± 8 (11 – 33) and 15 ± 4 (9 – 19) weight percentage respectively. These findings will serve as input data for qualitative human exposure and risk evaluations associated with wind-blown dust from active and closed gold mine tailings.

Annegarn, H.J., Zucchiatti, A., Sellschop, J.P.F. and Kusko, B. (1988) Composition and size of dust in a gold mine
atmosphere, Journal of the Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa 41(1), pp. 1-10.
Annegarn, H.J., Surridge, A.D., Hlapolosa, H.S.P., Swanepoel, D.J.D.E.V. and Horne, A.R. (1991) A review of
10 years of environmental dust monitoring at crown mines, Journal of the Mine Ventilation Society of South
Africa, Vol. 44 (3), pp. 46-50.
Cahill, T.A., Eldred, R.A., Feeney, P.J., Beveridge, P.J. and Wilkinson, L.K. (1990) The stacked filter unit revisited. In:
C.V. Mathai (ed), (TR-17), Visibility and fine particles. Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh,
PA, pp. 213-218.
Friedrichs, K.H. and Behrendt, H. (1997) Characterization of ambient air particle size fractions in three German cities
with the aid of Electron Microscopy. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 32,
pp. 229-231.
Herman, F.R. (1963) Seed-Trap liners of nylon tent screening, Journal of Forestry, 61 (7), 531 p.
Kippax, P. (2007) Measuring particles size using modern Laser Diffraction Techniques,
, accessed 2007-06-26.
Mahanraj, R. and Azeez, P.A. (2004) Health effects of airborne particulate matter and the Indian scenario. Current
Science 87 (6), pp. 741-748.
Mason, B. (1952) Principles of Geochemistry, John Wiley, London, cited in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics
49th edition (1968), The Chemical Rubber Company, Cleveland OH, U.S.A.
Morawska, L., Thomas, S., Jamriska, M. and Johnson, G. (1999) The modality of particles size distributions of
environmental aerosols. Atmospheric Environment, 33, pp. 4401-4411.
Grain Size Analysis and Elemental Composition of the PM10 and PM5 Fractions of Gold-Tailings M.E. Ojelede et al.
Stack, R.W., Ostry, M.E. and Littlefield, L.J. (1984) A convenient holder for mailing and storing leaf specimens, North
Central Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service Research Note – NC-319, 2 p.
Száková, J., Sysalová, J. and Tlustoš, P. (2005) Particular aspects of environmental impact of potentially risk elements
from airborne particulate matter, Plant Soil Environ. 51(8), pp. 376-383.
US-EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) (1999) Compendium of Methods for the Determination of
Inorganic Compounds in Ambient Air. Centre for Environmental Research Information, Office of Research and
Development, Cincinnati, OH 45268. EPA/625/R-96/010a.
Xuan, J. and Sokolik, I.N. (2002) Characterization of sources and emission rates of mineral dust in Northern China.
Atmospheric Environment 36, pp. 4863-4876.
Zhang, M., Song, Yu. and Cai, X. (2007) A health-based assessment of particulate air pollution in urban areas of
Beijing in 2000 – 2004. Science of the Total Environment, 376, pp. 100-108.

© Copyright 2022, Australian Centre for Geomechanics (ACG), The University of Western Australia. All rights reserved.
Please direct any queries or error reports to