Authors: Diacomanolis, V; Ng, JC; Sadler, R; Nomura, M; Harris, H; Noller, BN

Paper is not available for download
Contact Us


Cite As:
Diacomanolis, V, Ng, JC, Sadler, R, Nomura, M, Harris, H & Noller, BN 2008, 'Assessment of Cadmium as a Contaminant in Mine Closure', in AB Fourie, M Tibbett, I Weiersbye & P Dye (eds), Mine Closure 2008: Proceedings of the Third International Seminar on Mine Closure, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 681-688,

Download citation as:   ris   bibtex   endnote   text   Zotero

Contamination of soil and water by cadmium from both mine residues, and the use of phosphate fertilizers applied during mine rehabilitation activities, can result in bioaccumulation by terrestrial and aquatic plants and animals, which in turn can lead to human uptake of this element. X-ray absorption spectroscopy, using absorption near-edge spectroscopy-XANES at the K-edges of cadmium, was used to study the molecular form of cadmium present in mine wastes, and determine its association with bioavailability using rat uptake experiments. The XANES spectra were recorded for rat liver samples following dosing with solutions of mine wastes, and mine waste material itself, and compared with Emax values for cadmium model compounds. XANES spectra of mine wastes show that cadmium has features of Cd-S, Cd-O or a mixture of both forms. The results from the rat experiments show that cadmium uptake occurs from CdCl2 solutions, but is negligible from insoluble forms such as CdS commonly found in mine wastes. Bioaccessibility measured using the physiologically-based extraction test (PBET) shows that Cd in mine wastes is likely to be available during both the stomach and intestinal phases of the GI system, and is a more practical way to estimate bioavailability. The information about Cd for mined land that are based on the measure of bioavailability of mine soils using bioaccessibility can be used in a risk assessment framework to develop site-specific health investigation levels for Cd.

Bruce, S., Noller, B., Matanitobua, V. and Ng, J. (2007) In Vitro physiologically-based extraction test (PBET) and
bioaccessibility of arsenic and lead from various mine waste materials. J. Environmental Health and Toxicology
70, pp. 1700-1711.
Chan, J., Merrifield, M.E., Soldatov, A.V. and Stillman, M.J. (2005) XAFS spectral analysis of the cadmium
coordination geometry in cadmium thiolate clusters in metallothionein. Inorganic Chemistry, 44, pp. 4923-4933.
Diacomanolis, V., Ng, J.C. and Noller, B.N. (2007) Development of Mine Site Close-Out Criteria for Arsenic and Lead
Based using a Health Risk Approach. A. Fourie, M. Tibbett and J. Wiertz (eds), Mine Closure 2007 – 2nd
International Seminar on Mine Closure, Santiago, Chile, 16-19 October 2007, Australian Centre for
Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 191-198.
enHealth (2004) Environmental Health Risk Assessment. Guidelines for assessing human health risks from
environmental hazards, Department of Health and Ageing and enHealth Council, Canberra, Australia.
Khaokaew, S., Tappero, R., Jin, Y., Ravel, B., Chaney, R.L. and Sparks, D.L. (2007) Cadmium speciation and release
kinetics in a Thai paddy soil: an in situ molecular-scale investigation using X-ray absorption spectroscopy.
Biogeochemistry of trace elements, Environmental protection, remediation and human health, Proceedings 9th
ICOBTE Conference. Y. Zhu, N. Lepp and R. Naidu (eds) Tsinghua University Press. pp. 313-314.
NEPC (1999) National Environmental Protection (Assessment of Site Contamination) Measures, National Environment
Protection Council, Adelaide.
NRC (2003) Bioavailability of Contaminants in Soil and Sediments. National Research Council of the National
Academies Press, Washington, D.C.
RTECS (1978) Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. J.W. Richard, R.L. Tatken (eds), U.S. Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Service, Center for Disease Control (CDC) and National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Cincinnati, Ohio 45226.
Ruby, M.V., Davis, A., Schoof, R., Eberle, S. and Sellstone, C.M. (1996) Estimation of lead and arsenic bioavailability
using a physiologically based extraction test. Environmental Science and Technology, 30, pp. 422-430.
WHO (1992) World Health Organisation Environmental Health Criteria No 134, Cadmium WHO, Geneva, 280 p.

© Copyright 2024, Australian Centre for Geomechanics (ACG), The University of Western Australia. All rights reserved.
View copyright/legal information
Please direct any queries or error reports to