Authors: White, B; Doole, G; Byrd, D; Pannell, D

Paper is not available for download
Contact Us


Cite As:
White, B, Doole, G, Byrd, D & Pannell, D 2009, 'An economic analysis of environmental bonds in the Western Australian mineral sands industry', in AB Fourie & M Tibbett (eds), Mine Closure 2009: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Mine Closure, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 167-174,

Download citation as:   ris   bibtex   endnote   text   Zotero

Environmental bonds applied as insurance policies, bank guarantees or other forms of financial instrument or insurance contracts are used in most countries to reduce the risk of governments incurring the costs of mine site remediation. Despite their widespread use and the high cost of bonds to mining companies, the incentive effects of bonds to encourage timely mine restoration is a neglected topic. This paper presents a case study based on the mineral sands industry in Western Australia. The analysis indicates that the imposition of environmental bonds affects the profitability and mineral output of the firm through time. Depending upon the bond mechanism used and how it is implemented, the rate of mine restoration can be optimal, too slow, or too rapid. In setting the bond rate, key factors that the regulator should account for include the profit from mining, restoration costs, the social cost of environmental damage, the discount rate and the probability that the firm will be bankrupt prior to mine closure.

Brooke, A., Kendrick, D., Meeraus, A. and Raman, R. (2008) GAMS—A user’s guide, GAMS Development
Corporation, Washington D.C.
Department of Industry and Resources (DOIR) (2006) Minerals Titles Online, Government of Western Australia,
viewed 15 May 2009, C45B946FFAFA544EF610B0D27.asp.
Hillegeist, S.A., Keating, E.K. Cram, D.P. and Lundstedt, K.G. (2004) Assessing the Probability of Bankruptcy, Review
of Accounting Studies, 9, pp. 5–34.
Office of Surface Mining (OSM) (2000) Handbook for Calculation of Reclamation Bond Amounts, United States
Department of the Interior.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2004) Tradeable Permits, Policy Evaluation,
Design and Reform. Paris, 21–22 January, 2004.
Pesaran, M.H. (1990) An Econometric-Analysis Of Exploration And Extraction Of Oil In The UK Continental-Shelf,
The Economic Journal, 100, pp. 367–390.

© Copyright 2022, Australian Centre for Geomechanics (ACG), The University of Western Australia. All rights reserved.
Please direct any queries or error reports to