Al-Tarhouni, M, Simms, P & Sivathayalan, S 2009, 'Seismic Behaviour of Thickened Gold Tailings', in R Jewell, AB Fourie, S Barrera & J Wiertz (eds), Proceedings of the Twelfth International Seminar on Paste and Thickened Tailings
, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 291-300, https://doi.org/10.36487/ACG_repo/963_33
A simple shear apparatus (Norwegian Geotechnical Institute type) has been used to investigate the
liquefaction behaviour of gold tailings over a range of confining stresses and void ratios, including
monotonic and cyclic loading. The tested samples were prepared by either simply reconstituting the sample
at a given water content or by employing a “dry-wet” preparation technique. The latter technique involved
drying the sample to the shrinkage limit, re-saturating the sample, and then consolidating it, in order to
simulate the stress history that might be experienced in the field. Cyclic resistance ratios for samples
prepared by using the dry-wet preparation technique were considerably higher than those of samples
prepared by using the standard technique. In general, the tailings could experience significant deformation
during cyclic loading irrespective of whether the monotonic response was contractive or dilative. It is
recommended that a strain criterion be adopted to design thickened tailings stacks to resist earthquake
ASTM D 422-63 (2002) Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils, PA, USA.
ASTM D 4318 (2000) Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils, PA, USA.
Bjerrum, L. and Landva, A. (1966) Direct simple-shear tests on a Norwegian quick clay, Geotechnique, 16, pp. 1–20.
Davies, M.P., Chin, B.G. and Dawson, B.G. (1998) Static liquefaction slump of mine tailings – a case history,
Proceedings 51st Canadian Geotechnical Conference, Edmonton.
Dobry, R. and Alvarez, L. (1967) Seismic failure of Chilean tailings dams, Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundation
Division, No. SM6, November, pp. 237–260.
Dyvik, R., Berre, T., Lacasse, S. and Raadim, B. (1987) Comparison of truly undrained and constant volume direct
simple shear tests, Geotechnique, 37, pp. 3–10.
Fourie, A.B. and Papageorgiou, G. (2001) Defining an appropriate steady state line for Merriespruit gold tailings,
Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 38, pp. 695–706.
Hyde, A.F.L., Higuchi, T. and Yasuhara, K. (2004) Liquefaction and cyclic failure of low plasticity silt, International
Conference on Cyclic Behaviour of Soils and Liquefaction Phenomena, Bochum, Taylor and Francis, London,
Hyde, A.F.L., Higuchi, T. and Yasuhara, K. (2007) Postcyclic recompression, stiffness, and consolidated cyclic strength
of silt, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 133, pp. 416–423.
Paste 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile 299
Seismic Behaviour of Thickened Gold Tailings M. Al-Tarhouni et al.
ICOLD and UNEP (2001) Bulletin 121, Tailings dams - risk of dangerous occurrences, Lessons learnt from practical
Ishihara, K., Trancoso, J., Kawase, Y. and Takahashi, Y. (1980) Cyclic strength characteristics of tailings materials,
Soil and Foundations, 20, pp. 127–142.
Ishihara, K., Yasuda, S. and Yokota, K. (1981) Cyclic strength of undisturbed mine tailings, In Proceedings of the
International Conf. on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics, University
of Missouri-Rolla, St. Louis, Mo. Vol. 1, pp. 53–58.
National Research Council (NRC) (1985) Liquefaction of soils during earthquakes, National Academy Press,
Simms P., Grabinsky, M.W. and Zhan, G. (2007) Modelling evaporation of paste tailings from the Bulyanhulu mine,
Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 44, pp. 1417–1432.
Singh, S. (1996) Liquefaction characteristic of silts, Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 14, pp. 1–19.
Wijewickreme, D., Sanin, M.V. and Greenaway, G.R. (2005) Cyclic shear response of fine-grained mine tailings,
Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 42, pp. 1408–1421.
300 Paste 2009, Viña del Mar, Chile