Havaej, M, Wolter, A, Stead, D, Tuckey, Z, Lorig, L & Eberhardt, E 2013, 'Incorporating brittle fracture into three-dimensional modelling of rock slopes', in PM Dight (ed.), Proceedings of the 2013 International Symposium on Slope Stability in Open Pit Mining and Civil Engineering
, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 625-638, https://doi.org/10.36487/ACG_rep/1308_41_Havaej
During the last decade significant advances have been made in the two-dimensional modelling of brittle fracture associated with rock slope failure both in open pit mines and natural mountain slopes. This paper focuses on the application of the three-dimensional lattice code, Slope Model, in modelling brittle fracture and damage evolution involved in three-dimensional kinematically-controlled slope instability mechanisms. Results of simulations of non-daylighting wedge failure and active-passive block slope failures are presented, with an emphasis on characterising brittle damage at varying stages of slope failure development. A new approach to characterising brittle fracture damage is developed based on fracture generation rates and the inverse velocity of the failing rock mass. Brittle fracturing of ‘in-plane’ and ‘out−of−plane’ rock bridges is simulated using a conceptual approach incorporating a simple Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) into simulations. In order to simulate the complex geometry associated with three−dimensional slope failures, pre-processing routines have been developed to incorporate photogrammetric and LiDAR derived Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) within the Slope Model software. Procedures are demonstrated through the use of preliminary Slope Model simulations of the Vajont landslide, a major catastrophic landslide, which resulted in the loss of over 2,000 lives.
Adhikary, D.P. and Dyskin, A.V. (2007) Modelling of Progressive and Instantaneous Failures of Foliated Rock Slopes, Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, Vol. 40 (4), pp. 349–362.
Adhikary, D.P., Dyskin, A.V. Jewell, R.J. and Stewart, D.P. (1997) A Study of the Mechanism of Flexural Toppling Failure of Rock Slopes, Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, Vol. 30 (2), pp. 75–93.
Alzo’ubi, A.K., Martin, C.D. and Cruden, D.M. (2010) Influence of Tensile Strength on Toppling Failure in Centrifuge Tests, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, Vol. 47 (6) September, pp. 974–982.
Baczynski, N.R.P. (2000) Stepsim4 ‘Step-Path’ Method for Slope Risks, In Geoeng 2000, Melbourne, Australia.
Brideau, M-A. and Stead, D. (2010) Controls on Block Toppling Using a Three-Dimensional Distinct Element Approach, Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, Vol. 43 (3), pp. 241–260.
Brideau, M-A., Yan, M. and Stead, D. (2009) The Role of Tectonic Damage and Brittle Rock Fracture in the Development of Large Rock Slope Failures, Geomorphology, Vol. 103 (1), January, pp. 30–49.
Broili, L. (1967) New knowledges on the geomorphology of the Vaiont Slide slip surfaces, Felsmechanik und Ingenieurgeologie, Vol. 5(1), pp. 38–88.
Cai, M. (2011) Rock Mass Characterization and Rock Property Variability Considerations for Tunnel and Cavern Design, Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, Vol. 44 (4), July 1, pp. 379–399.
Cundall, P.A. (2011) Lattice Method for Modeling Brittle, Jointed Rock, in Proceedings 2nd International FLAC/DEM Symposium, 14−16 February 2011, Melbourne, Australia.
Cundall, P.A. and Damjanac, B. (2009) A Comprehensive 3D Model for Rock Slopes Based on Micromechanics, in Proceedings Slope Stability 2009, Santiago Chile, pp. 1–10.
Eberhardt, E., Stead, D., Karami, A. and Coggan, J.S. (2004) Numerical Analysis of Brittle Fracture Propagation and Step-path Failure in Massive Rock Slopes, in Proceedings 57th Canadian Geotechnical Conference, Quebec City, Canada, Session 7C, pp. 1–8.
Elmo, D., Moffitt, K., D’Ambra, A. and Stead, D. (2009) Characterization of Brittle Rock Fracture Mechanisms in Rock Slope Failures, in Proceedings Slope Stability 2009, Santiago Chile, pp. 1–11.
Ghirotti, M. (1992) Aspetti geomeccanici e modellazione numerica della frana del Vajont, PhD thesis, Universitá di Parma, Ferrara, Firenze e Pavia, Italy.
Havaej, M., Stead, D., Lorig, L. and Vivas, J. (2012) Modelling Rock Bridge Failure And Brittle Fracturing In Large Open Pit Rock Slopes, in Proceedings 46th U.S. Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, Chicago, Illinois: American Rock Mechanics Association.
Hendron, A.J. and Patton F.D. (1985) The Vaiont Slide, A Geotechnical Analysis Based on New Geologic Observations of the Failure Surface, US Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC, Technical Report GL-85-5, 324 p.
Itasca Consulting Group Inc. (2010) Slope Model, description of formulation with verification and example problems, Revision 2, Minneapolis, MN United States.
Itasca Consulting Group Inc. (2010) UDEC 5.0. Manual, Minneapolis, MN United States.
Itasca Consulting Group Inc. (2008) 3DEC-3 dimensional distinct element code manual. Minneapolis, MN United States.
Itasca Consulting Group Inc. (2011) PFC3D 4.0. Minneapolis, MN United States.
Jennings, J.E. (1970) A Mathematical Theory for the Calculation of the Stability of Slopes in Open Cast Mines, in Proceedings Planning of Open Pit Mines, P.W.J. Van Rensburg (ed), 29 August–4 September 1970, Johannesburg, South Africa, Balkema, Cape Town, pp. 87–102.
Konietzky, H. (2004) Numerical Modelling of Discrete Materials in Geotechnical Engineering, Civil Engineering and Earth Sciences, in Proceedings First International UDEC/3DEC Symposium, 29 September–1 October 2004, Bochum, Germany, Taylor & Francis.
Kvapil, R. and Clews, K.M. (1979) An examination of the Prandtl mechanism in large-dimension slope failures, Transactions of The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, Sect. A: Mining Industry, Vol. 88, A1–A5.
Mencl, V. (1966) Mechanics of landslides with non-circular slip surfaces with special reference to the Vaiont slide, Geotechnique, Vol. 16(4), pp. 329–337.
Mercer, K.G. (2006) Investigation into the Time Dependent Deformation Behaviour and Failure Mechanisms of Unsupported Rock Slopes Based on the Interpretation of Observed Deformation Behaviour, Thesis.
Priest, S.D. and Hudson, J.A. (1981) Estimation of Discontinuity Spacing and Trace Length Using Scanline Surveys, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences and Geomechanics Abstracts, Vol. 18 (3), June, pp. 183–197.
Sitar, N. and MacLaughlin, M.M. (1997) Kinematics and Discontinuous Deformation Analysis of landslide movement, in Proceedings 2nd Panamerican Symposium on Landslides, 10–14 November 1997, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, London, pp. 65–73.
Stead, D., Coggan, J.S. and Eberhardt, E. (2004) Realistic Simulation of Rock Slope Failure Mechanisms, The Need to Incorporate Principles of Fracture Mechanics, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, Vol. 41(3), April, 466 p.
Stead, D. and Eberhardt, E. (1997) Developments in the Analysis of Footwall Slopes in Surface Coal Mining, Engineering Geology, Vol. 46(1), 26 March, pp. 41–61.
Sturzenegger, M., Stead, D. and Elmo, D. (2011) Terrestrial Remote Sensing-based Estimation of Mean Trace Length, Trace Intensity and Block Size/Shape, Engineering Geology, Vol. 119(3–4), 9 May, pp. 96–111.
Superchi, L. (2012) The Vajont Rockslide: New Techniques and Traditional Methods to Re-evaluate the Catastrophic Event, PhD thesis, Universita degli Studi di Padova, Italy, 187 p.
Tuckey, Z., Stead, D., Havaej, M., Gao, F. and Sturzenegger, M. (2012) Towards an Integrated Field Mapping-Numerical Modelling Approach for Characterising Discontinuity Persistence and Intact Rock Bridges in Large Open Pits, in Proceedings The Canadian Geotechnical Society (Geo Manitoba), 30 September–3 October 2012, Winnipeg, Manitoba.
Wolter, A., Stead, D. and Clague, J. (2013) A morphologic characterisation of the 1963 Vajont Slide, Italy, using long-range terrestrial photogrammetry, Geomorphology (submitted).
Yan, M. (2008) Numerical Modelling of Brittle Fracture and Step-path Failure: From Laboratory to Rock Slope Scale, PhD Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada.
Zhang, J.H., Chen, Z.Y. and Wang, X.G. (2007) Centrifuge Modeling of Rock Slopes Susceptible to Block Toppling, Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, Vol. 40(4), pp. 363–382.