Authors: Durrheim, RJ


Cite As:
Durrheim, RJ 2014, 'Has research and development contributed to improvements in safety and profitability of deep South African mines?', in M Hudyma & Y Potvin (eds), Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Deep and High Stress Mining, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 23-40.

Download citation as:   ris   bibtex   endnote   text   Zotero


Abstract:
The remarkably rich and persistent gold and platinum deposits in South Africa stimulated the development of a deep mining industry. The challenges of mining laterally-extensive orebodies at depths as great as 4 km include high rock stress and temperature, and large vertical and horizontal distances over which personnel, materials and rock must be transported. Innovation was driven by entrepreneurial zeal, private-public partnerships, government regulation, and labour activism. Despite the development and widespread implementation of many technologies critical to successful deep mining, there has been a major decline in domestic research and development (R&D) activity and capacity during the past two decades. Nevertheless, there are some areas of research where South African researchers continue to break new ground, notably the application of reflection seismology in the hard rock environment, studies of rockburst mechanisms, and the development of systems to monitor the underground environment. Changes in the social, economic and political landscape since the advent of democracy in South Africa in 1994 have also had a major impact on the deep mining industry, and will most likely accelerate efforts to increase the level of mechanisation and automation.

References:
Adams, DJ & Van der Heever, PK 2001, ‘An overview of seismic research co-ordinated by SIMRAC since its inception’, in G van Aswegen, RJ Durrheim & WD Ortlepp (eds), Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Rockbursts and Seismicity in Mines, The South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Johannesburg, pp. 205−212.
ANC 2012, State Intervention in the Minerals Sector, viewed 7 July 2014,
Anon. 1916, Report of the Witwatersrand Rock Burst Committee 1915, The Government Printing and Stationery Office, Pretoria.
Anon. 1925, Report of the Witwatersrand Earth Tremors Committee 1924, The Government Printer, Cape Town.
Anon. 1964, Recommendations of the Rock Burst Committee 1964, Department of Mines, Cape Town.
Brink, AVZ 2010, ‘Real time risk assessment of hangingwall/roof stability in deep South African mines’, in M Van Sint Jan & Y Potvin (eds), Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Deep and High Stress Mining, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 477-490.
Campbell, G 2011, ‘Exploration geophysics of the Bushveld Complex in South Africa’, The Leading Edge, vol. 30, pp. 622-637.
Creamer, M 2013, ‘Economist calls on South Africa to save pivotal gold-mining industry’, Mining Weekly, 3 October 2013, viewed 28 May 2014,
Creamer, M 2014a, ‘Exciting new gold mechanisation achieving more success – Anglogold’, Mining Weekly, 19 February 2014, viewed 28 May 2014, .
Creamer, M 2014b, ‘Govt lauded for AMD paradigm shift, but complexity not fully grasped’, Mining Weekly, 18 April 2014, viewed 28 May 2014, .
Dankert, BT & Hein, KAA 2010, ‘Evaluating the structural character and tectonic history of the Witwatersrand Basin’, Precambrian Research, , vol. 177, pp. 1-22.
Department of Mineral Resources 2012, Report by the Chief Inspector of Mines, Mr D. Msiza, to the Parliamentary Portfolio Committee, viewed 28 May 2014,
Durrheim, RJ 2005, ‘Towards best practice in rock-related research: a holistic assessment of the SIMRAC programme’, Proceedings of the Third Southern African Rock Engineering Symposium: Best practices in rock engineering, South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Johannesburg, pp. 1-12.
Durrheim, RJ 2007, ‘The DeepMine and FutureMine Research Programmes - Knowledge and Technology for Deep Gold Mining in South Africa’, in Y Potvin, J Hadjigeorgiou & TR Stacey (eds), Challenges in Deep and High Stress Mining, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 131-141.
Durrheim, RJ 2010, ‘Mitigating the risk of rockbursts in the deep hard rock mines of South Africa: 100 years of research’, in J Brune (ed), Extracting the Science: a Century of Mining Research, Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc., Englewood, pp. 156-171.
Durrheim, RJ & Ogasawara, H 2012, ‘Can mine tremors be predicted? Observational studies of earthquake nucleation, triggering and rupture in South African mines’, Proceedings of the Second Southern Hemisphere International Rock Mechanics Symposium, South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Johannesburg, pp. 327-343.
Durrheim, RJ, Brown, ET, Kaiser, PK & Wagner, H 2005, A holistic assessment of SIMRAC rock-related research to date, Final Report, project SIM 04-02-06, Mine Health and Safety Council, Johannesburg.
Durrheim, RJ, Anderson, RL, Cichowicz, A, Ebrahim-Trollope, R, Hubert, G, Kijko, A, McGarr, A, Ortlepp, WD & Van der Merwe, N 2006, Investigation into the risks to miners, mines, and the public associated with large seismic events in gold mining districts, Department of Minerals and Energy, Pretoria.
Durrheim, RJ, Ogasawara, H, Nakatani, M, Yabe, Y, Milev, A, Cichowicz, A, Kawakata, H, Moriya, H & the JST-JICA SA Research Group 2010, ‘Observational Study to Mitigate Seismic Risks in Mines: a new Japanese - South African collaborative project’, in M Van Sint Jan & Y Potvin (eds), Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Rockbursts and Seismicity in Mines, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 215-225.
Gray, NK, Tucker, RE & Kershaw, DJ 1994, ‘The Sun Project-I. Discovery of a major new Witwatersrand goldfield’, in CR Anhaeusser (ed.), Proceedings of the XVth Council of Mining and Metallurgical Institutions Congress, vol. 3, South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Johannesburg, pp. 95-102.
Handley, JRF 2004, Historic Overview of the Witwatersrand Goldfields, Handley, Howick.
Haslett, MJ 1994, ‘The South Deep Project: Geology and planning for the future’, in CR Anhaeusser (ed.), Proceedings of the XVth Council of Mining and Metallurgical Institutions Congress, vol. 3, South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, pp. 71−83.
Lambert, I, Durrheim, R, Godoy, M, Kota, M, Leahy, P, Ludden, J, Nickless, E, Oberhaensli, R, Anjian, W & Williams, N 2013, ‘Resourcing Future Generations: a proposed new IUGS initiative’, Episodes, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 82-86.
Mchunu, S 2013, ‘Acid mine drainage has Jo’burg quaking’, Mail & Guardian, 5 December 2013, viewed 28 May 2014, .
Malehmir, A, Durrheim, R, Bellefleur, G, Urosevic, M, Juhlin, C, White, D, Milkereit, B & Campbell, G 2012, ‘Seismic methods in mineral exploration and mine planning: A general overview of past and present case histories and a look into the future’, Geophysics, vol. 77, pp. WC173-WC190.
Manzi, M, Durrheim, RJ, Hein, KAA & King, N 2012a, ‘3D edge detection seismic attributes used to map potential conduits for water and methane in deep gold mines in the Witwatersrand basin, South Africa’, Geophysics, vol. 77, pp. WC133-WC147.
Manzi, MSD, Gibson, MAS, Hein, KAA, King, N & Durrheim, RJ 2012b, ‘Application of 3D seismic techniques in evaluation of ore resources in the West Wits Line goldfield and portions of the West Rand Goldfield, South Africa’, Geophysics, vol. 77, pp. WC163-WC171.
Manzi, MSD, Hein, KAA, King, N & Durrheim, RJ 2013, Neoarchaean tectonic history of the Witwatersrand Basin and Ventersdorp Supergroup: New constraints from high-resolution 3D seismic reflection data, Tectonophysics, vol. 590, pp. 94-105.
Manzi, MSD, Hein, KAA, Durrheim, RJ & King, N 2014, ‘Integration of 3D seismic, in-mine geological mapping and exploration borehole data to model the orebody at Kloof gold mine, South Africa’, International Journal of Rock Mechanics & Mining Sciences, vol. 66, pp. 97-113.
Moriya, H, Naoi, M, Nakatani, M, Murakami, O, Kgarume, T, Ward, AK, Durrheim, R, Philipp, J, Yabe, Y, Kawakata, H & Ogasawara, H 2012, ‘Detection of mining-induced fractures around a stope in Ezulwini gold mine, South Africa, by using AE events with similar waveforms’, Proceedings of the 21st International Acoustic Emission Symposium, Japanese Society for Non−Destructive Inspection, Okinawa Prefecture Municipal Center, Naha, pp. 181-186.
MOSH 2014, The Chamber of Mines Learning Hub, MOSH, viewed 7 July 2014,
Naoi, M, Nakatani, M, Philipp, J, Horiuchi, S, Otsuki, K, Kgarume, T, Morema, G, Khambule, S, Masakale, T, Miyakawa, K, Watanabe, A, Moriya, H, Murakami, O, Yabe, Y, Kawakata, H, Yoshimitsu, N & Ogasawara, H 2012, ‘AE measurements at 1 km depth in a deep South African gold mine and their activities related to two M0 earthquakes’, Abstracts, Japanese Geosciences Union Meeting 2012, SSS28-07.
National Planning Commission 2012, National Development Plan 2030, National Planning Commission, viewed 7 July 2014, .
Ogasawara, H, Durrheim, RJ, Nakatani, M, Yabe, Y, Milev, A, Cichowicz, A, Kawakata, H & Moriya, H 2009, ‘JST-JICA SA research group, a Japanese - South African collaboration to mitigate seismic risks in deep gold mines’, in J Van der Westhuizen (ed.), Proceedings of the First Hard Rock Safe Safety Conference, South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Johannesburg, pp. 115-134.
Ogasawara, H, Kato, H, Hofmann, G & De Bruin, P 2012, ‘Trial of the BX conical-ended borehole overcoring stress measurement technique’, Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, vol. 102, pp. 749-754.
Ogasawara, H, Hofmann, G, Kato, H, Nakatani, M, Moriya, H, Naoi, M, Yabe, Y, Durrheim, R, Cichowicz, A, Kgarume, T, Milev, A, Murakami, O, Satoh, T & Kawakata, H 2013, ‘In-situ monitoring and modelling of the rock mass response to mining: Japanese-South African collaborative research’, in A Malovichko & D Malovichko (eds), Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Rockbursts and Seismicity in Mines, Geophysical Survey of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, pp. 51-60.
Pretorius, CC, Muller, MR, Larroque, M & Wilkens, C 2003, ‘A review of 16 years of hardrock seismics on the Kaapvaal Craton’, in DW Eaton, B Milkereit & MH Salisbury (eds), Hardrock Seismic Exploration, Geophysical Developments Series No. 10, Society of Exploration Geophysicists, Tulsa, pp. 247-268.
Price, M, Green, J & Dickens, J 2011, ‘Creating Thermal Maps of Mines’, Proceedings of the Fourth Robotics and Mechatronics Conference of South Africa, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, p. 23.
Sugawara, K & Obara, Y 1999, ‘Draft ISRM suggested method for in situ stress measurement using the compact conical-ended borehole overcoring (CCBO) technique’, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, vol. 36, pp. 307-322.
Tucker, RE, Schlegel, GC-J, Wagener, JHE & Gray, NK 1994, ‘The Sun Project-II. Scientific and technological innovations in a Witwatersrand exploration venture’, in CR Anhaeusser (ed.), Proceedings of the XVth Council of Mining and Metallurgical Institutions Congress, vol. 3, South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Johannesburg, pp. 103-116.
Teleka, SR, Green JJ & Brink, S 2011, ‘The automation of the “making safe” process in South African hard-rock underground mines’, in MK Khan & NL Win (eds), Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on CAD/CAM, Robotics and Factories of the Future, vol. 2, International Society for Productivity Enhancement, pp. 532-540.
Tucker, RE, Schlegel, GC-J, Wagener, JHE & Gray, NK 1994, ‘The Sun Project-II. Scientific and technological innovations in a Witwatersrand exploration venture’, in CR Anhaeusser (ed.), Proceedings of the XVth Council of Mining and Metallurgical Institutions Congress, vol. 3, South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Johannesburg, pp. 103-116.
Utsu, T 2003, ‘Centennial Report of Japan Part 2, Historical development of Seismology in Japan’, in W Lee, P Jennings, C Kisslinger & H Kanamori (eds), International Handbook of Earthquake & Engineering Seismology, Part B, Academic Press, London, pp. 1377-1391.
Viljoen, MJ & Reimold, WU 1999, An Introduction to South Africa’s Geological and Mining Heritage, The Geological Society of South Africa and Mintek, Randburg.




© Copyright 2019, Australian Centre for Geomechanics (ACG), The University of Western Australia. All rights reserved.
Please direct any queries or error reports to repository-acg@uwa.edu.au