Slatch, AK 2022, 'Suggesting landscape as a framework for mine closure of abandoned opencast mines based on understanding global practices, standards and vision', in AB Fourie, M Tibbett & G Boggs (eds), Mine Closure 2022: 15th International Conference on Mine Closure
, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 589-600, https://doi.org/10.36487/ACG_repo/2215_41
Mine closure practices, through the small history of its existence, have evolved and gained a strong understanding of the profession of landscape architecture (Baida et al. 2014). Standards on mine closure from organisations such as the International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM) since 2008 and the recent International Organization for Standardization (ISO) guidance book have been updated and revised to follow the Sustainable Development Goals. Future vision on mine closure by the World Bank since 2018 specifies the need for “Achieving a Just Transition for All”, with key lessons based on policy-strategy development, people and communities, and land and environmental remediation.
Yet mine closure standards and vision based on landscape as an important framework have not been explored or highlighted, despite vocabulary such as landscape restoration, land reclamation, etc., in use when discussing solutions for mine closure (Ignatyeva et al. 2020) and, specifically, opencast abandoned mine sites that have both a physical and environmental impact, such as altered landscape, unproductive and contaminated land, steep and erodible slopes, abandoned mine waste disposal facilities, changes in surface and subsurface water regimes, subsidence, etc. (Bennett 2016; Peck 2005).
The paper will review mine closure practices from the Global North and South, along with the standards and visions of mine closure through the lens of landscape. The paper will raise questions pertinent to the need of a landscape framework as new knowledge, which will be essential in meeting the vision of a Just Transition.
Keywords: opencast mines, mine closure, landscape framework, Just Transition
Antrop, M 2000, ‘Geography and landscape science’, Belgian Journal of Geography, (1-2-3-4), pp. 9–36.
APEC 2018, Mine Closure-Checklist for Governments, Singapore.
Appunn, K 2018, Germany’s Three Lignite Mining Regions,
Atteridge, CSMTAA 2019, Navigating Coal Mine closure and societal change: learning from past cases of mining decline. S. E. Institute.
Baida, M, Slingerland, N & Wilson, W 2014, The great divide between mine closure goals and outcomes, and potential solutions.
Baumert, M 2020, ‘Setting a clear order in the landscape or “defacing the environment”? Trends in lignite mining rehabilitation in the Lusatian mining area from 1949 to 1990’, Der Anschnitt, vol. 72, (H. 3–4), pp. 75–83.
Bennett, K 2016, 15–17 March, Abandoned mines — environmental, social and economic challenges Mine Closure 2016: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Mine Closure, Perth.
Berger, A 2002, Reclaiming the American West, PRAXIS: Journal of Writing + Building(4), pp. 82–93,
Berger, A 2008, Designing the Reclaimed Landscape, Routledge, London
Bond, A & Piepenburg, K 1990, Land reclamation after surface mining in the USSR: economic, political, and legal issues, Soviet Geography, vol. 31, pp. 332–365,
Botezan, C, Constantin, V, Meltzer, M, Radovici, A, Pop, A, Alexandrescu, F & Stefanescu, L 2020, Is There Sustainable Development after Mining? A Case Study of Three Mining Areas in the Apuseni Region (Romania), Sustainability, vol. 12,
Bottmeyer, M, Riedel, J & Rotering-Vuong, H 2012, The Ecological Land Management of the Ruhr Regional Association RVR – A New Path to the Preservation of Open Spaces, Knowing to Manage the Territory, Protect the Environment, Evaluate the Cultural Heritage, Rome, Italy.
British Columbia. Mine Closure Task Force 1990, The Impact of mine closure in British Columbia. Mine Closure Task Force.
Burley, J 2001a, Environmental Design for Reclaiming Surface Mines.
Burley, J 2001b, Post-mining Land-nse Planning and Design: a Multiplicity of Choices and Options. Journal American Society of Mining and Reclamation, 2001, pp. 60–64,
Burley, JB & Bauer, AM 2000, A landscape architectural reclamation pioneer’, Proceedings American Society of Mining and Reclamation, pp. 172–177),
Chaloping-March, M 2018, Social terrains of mine closure in the Philippines.
Cheng, L & Skousen, JG 2017, Comparison of international mine reclamation bonding systems with recommendations for China, International Journal of Coal Science Technology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 67–79,
Curran, DJ 1984, Symbolic solutions for deadly dilemmas: An analysis of federal coal mine health and safety legislation, International Journal of Health Services, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 5–29,
Dentoni, V & Massacci, G 2013, Assessment of visual impact induced by surface mining with reference to a case study located in Sardinia (Italy), Environmental Earth Sciences, vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 1485–1493,
Environment, D. o. t. 1976, Waste of Waste Land UN-Habitat Conference, Vancouver.
Gerner, M, Southwood, JM & Buckley, J 2011, 18-21 September, Beneficial and award-winning re-use of a quarry site – landform design for sustainable closure Mine Closure 2011: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Mine Closure, Alberta.
Haney, M, Shkaratan, M & Open Knowledge Repository 2003, Mine Closure and its Impact on the Community Five Years After Mine Closure in Romania, Russia and Ukraine [text]. World Bank, Washington, DC.
Hattingh, R & Bothma, J 2013, 18-20 September, Taking the risk out of a risky business: a land use approach to closure planning Mine Closure 2013: Proceedings of the Eighth International Seminar on Mine Closure, Cornwall.
Holmes, R & Stewart, G 2011, 18-21 September, A guidance document for mine closure and management of long-term liabilities – examining a policy framework in Canada Mine Closure 2011: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Mine Closure, Alberta.
ICMM 2008, Planning for Integrated Mine Closure: Toolkit.
Ignatyeva, M, Yurak, V & Pustokhina, N 2020, ‘Recultivation of post-mining disturbed land: review of content and comparative law and feasibility study’, Resources, vol. 9, no. 73, pp. 1–17,
ILO 2015, Guidelines for a just transition towards environmentally sustainable economies and societies for all.
Jones, H & Salmon, D 2012, 25-27 September, Unintended consequences and mine closure Mine Closure 2012: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Mine Closure, Brisbane.
Land, IBIF-P 2010, Neue Landschaft Lausitz. In. Berlin: Jovis.
Lechner, AM, McIntyre, N, Witt, K, Raymond, CM, Arnold, S, Scott, M & Rifkin, W 2017, Challenges of integrated modelling in mining regions to address social, environmental and economic impacts, Environmental Modelling Software, vol. 93, pp. 268–281,
Maus, V, Giljum, S, Gutschlhofer, J, da Silva, DM, Probst, M, Gass, SLB, Luckeneder, S, Lieber, M & McCallum, I 2020, A global-scale data set of mining areas, Scientific Data, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 289,
McKenna, GT 2002a, Sustainable Mine Reclaimation and Landscape Engineering University of Alberta]. Edmont, Alberta.
McKenna, GT 2002b, Sustainable Mine Reclaimation and Landscape Engineering University of Alberta]. Edmont, Alberta.
Mines, B. M. o. E. a. 2017, EY report & recommendations for BC’s mine reclamation financial security policy.
MMSD 2002, Breaking New Ground.
Nephew, EA 1972, Surface Mining and Land Reclamation in Germany.
Nguyen, X 2011, ‘Improving the legislative framework for mine closure in Western Australia’, Mine Closure 2011: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Mine Closure,
OECD 2019, Mining Regions and Cities. In OECD (Ed.).
Palazzo, D 2019, ‘Ian McHarg’s confident skill’, Socio-Ecological Practice Research, vol, 1, no. 3, pp. 347–357,
Peck, P 2005, Mining for Closure: Policies and Guidelines for Sustainable Mining Practice and Closure of Mines.
Pike, E 2011, 18-21 September, Monitoring after mine remediation – planning considerations and lessons learned in northern Canada Mine Closure 2011: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Mine Closure, Alberta.
Salmon, DA 2018, Managing uncertainty in planning opencast coal final void closure and relinquishment 11th ICARD | IMWA | MWD Conference – “Risk to Opportunity”, South Africa.
Sánchez, L, Silva-Sánchez, S & Neri, A 2014, Guide for Mine Closure Planning.
Skousen, J & Zipper, CE 2014, Post-mining policies and practices in the Eastern USA coal region, International Journal of Coal Science & Technology, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 135-151,
Steenhof, PA 2015, Development of International standards for Mine Reclamation Management British Columbia Mine Reclamation Symposium, British Columbia.
Town and Country Planning (Minerals) Act 1981.
Strambo, C, Aung, MT & Atteridge, A 2019, Navigating Coal Mine closure and societal change: learning from past cases of mining decline. S. E. Institute.
Street, EA 1986, ‘Land restoration after minerals extraction: the role of minerals planning authorities’, The Town Planning Review, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 382–403,
Thomas, TM 1966, ‘Derelict Land in South Wales’, Town Planning Review, vol. 37, pp. 125–141.
UN 2015, Paris Agreement.
World Bank 2018, Managing Coal Mine Closure: Achieving a Just Transition for All.
World Bank 2021, A Toolbox for Governments.
Zipper, C, Burger, J, Skousen, J, Angel, P, Barton, C, Davis, V & Franklin, J 2011, Restoring Forests and Associated Ecosystem Services on Appalachian Coal Surface Mines, Environmental Management, vol. 47, pp. 751–765,