Authors: Inci, YS; Uzunçelebi, G; Ürkmez, H; Ennis, S; Kimball, P; Ruiz Castro, E

Open access courtesy of:


Cite As:
Inci, YS, Uzunçelebi, G, Ürkmez, H, Ennis, S, Kimball, P & Ruiz Castro, E 2023, 'Application of filtered tailings storage method at Tüprag Efemçukuru Gold Mine', in GW Wilson, NA Beier, DC Sego, AB Fourie & D Reid (eds), Paste 2023: Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Paste, Thickened and Filtered Tailings, University of Alberta, Edmonton, and Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 354-371,

Download citation as:   ris   bibtex   endnote   text   Zotero

The filtered mine waste management method is a good alternative for sustainable mining and minimising environmental footprint. This method was applied for the first time at the commercial level in Turkey in 2011 at Tüprag Efemçukuru Gold Mine. At the Tüprag’s Efemçukuru Gold Mine (Efemçukuru), half of the dewatered filter cake is pumped to underground as paste backfill, the other half (filtered tailings) is stored in a surface tailings storage facility (TSF). The tailings material designated for surface is dewatered to approximately 80% solids through the use of thickening and filter presses and turned into a filter cake. The filtered tailings stockpile is a lined facility constructed with a double geosynthetic low permeability base liner system and includes a leakage detection system. Mining Association of Canada’s (MAC) Towards Sustainable Mining (TSM) principles and Global Industry Standard on Tailings Management (GISTM) are being applied for the management of the storage facility. Filtered tailings storage methods have advantages over other tailings deposition methods including increased physical stability of the stored heap due to the decrease in the waste saturation, and mitigation of potential failure mechanisms (e.g. liquefaction) as long as the tailings material is sufficiently compacted. Filtered tailings are also placed at an increased density, which reduces the facility footprint. Furthermore, deposition at a low water content means an active pond is not required within the TSF which allows for progressive reclamation. In this article, practical experience gained through the design, testing, construction and operation of the Efemçukuru filtered TSF is presented as well as the discussion of the ongoing implementation of Best Available Practices (BAP) and Best Available Technologies (BAT) in the site’s mine tailings management practices.

Keywords: filtered tailings, filtered stack, filtered tailings management, sustainable mining, best available practices, best available techniques

Global Tailings Review 2020, Global Industry Standard on Tailings Management (GISTM),
Kwan, K, Dawson, R, Boese, C & Churcher, D 2011, ‘Design of the Eldorado Gold Efemçukuru Filtered Tailings Facility’, Tailings and Mine Waste 2011.
Mining Association of Canada (MAC) 2019, Tailings Management Protocols,
Mining Association of Canada (MAC) 2021a, A Guide to the Management of Tailings Facilities, version 3.2,
Mining Association of Canada (MAC) 2021b, Developing an Operation, Maintenance, and Surveillance Manual for Tailings and Water Management Facilities, version 2.1,
Norwest Corporation 2014, 2013 CPT & Drilling Investigation – Summary and Evaluation, rev. 0, 8 May 2014.
Norwest Corporation 2018, Review of Efemçukuru’s Gold Mine’s Tailings Management System and with MAC’s Tailings Management Guidelines, 22 January 2018.
Selim İnci, Y, Kimball, P, Uzunçelebi, G & Ürkmez, H 2020, ‘Dry Tailings Storage Method’, International Mining Congress and Exhibition of Türkiye, , p. 1530.
Stantec Consulting International Ltd. (Stantec) 2019, Central TSF Classification and Risk Assessment, rev. 1, PowerPoint presentation, December 2019.
Stantec Consulting International Ltd. (Stantec) 2022, Review of Efemçukuru’s MAC Tailings Management System for Q2 2020 – Q2 2021, July 2022.
Uzunçelebi, G, Ennis, S & Ruiz Castro, E 2022, ‘Stability Performance of Efemçukuru Gold Mine Waste Storage Facility in October 2020 Aegean Sea Earthquake’, International Mining Congress and Exhibition of Türkiye. ‌ekler/1d04668cf9_606686688_ek.pdf, ımcet bildiriler kitabı.pdf (, p. 267.

© Copyright 2024, Australian Centre for Geomechanics (ACG), The University of Western Australia. All rights reserved.
View copyright/legal information
Please direct any queries or error reports to