Authors: Sandy, MP; Gibson, W; Gaudreau, D

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Sandy, MP, Gibson, W & Gaudreau, D 2007, 'Canadian and Australian Ground Support Practices in High Deformation Environments', in Y Potvin (ed.), Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar on Deep and High Stress Mining, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 297-311.

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Abstract:
Ground support is often a substantial component of mining costs. Many mining operations face significant challenges as they progress to greater depths and the stress environment becomes more aggressive. At some point, the level of stress-related damage becomes such that large deformations occur at the excavation boundaries. Changes to ground support designs are then necessary to ensure development remains serviceable and rehabilitation costs are contained at acceptable levels. This paper presents case histories from several Australian and Canadian mines that have dealt with this transition and discusses some of the practical and technical issues involved in selecting the most appropriate support and reinforcement systems for particular conditions. The mechanisms controlling the deformation around the excavations are discussed in terms of their implications for support and reinforcement system design and selection. Numerical modelling of the stress-induced damage around the excavation has been undertaken and the results are compared with the observed mechanisms. Monitoring options are also discussed.

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