Sandy, MP, Gibson, W & Gaudreau, D 2007, 'Canadian and Australian Ground Support Practices in High Deformation Environments', in Y Potvin (ed.), Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar on Deep and High Stress Mining
, Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Perth, pp. 297-311.
Ground support is often a substantial component of mining costs. Many mining operations face significant
challenges as they progress to greater depths and the stress environment becomes more aggressive. At some
point, the level of stress-related damage becomes such that large deformations occur at the excavation
boundaries. Changes to ground support designs are then necessary to ensure development remains
serviceable and rehabilitation costs are contained at acceptable levels.
This paper presents case histories from several Australian and Canadian mines that have dealt with this
transition and discusses some of the practical and technical issues involved in selecting the most appropriate
support and reinforcement systems for particular conditions.
The mechanisms controlling the deformation around the excavations are discussed in terms of their
implications for support and reinforcement system design and selection.
Numerical modelling of the stress-induced damage around the excavation has been undertaken and the
results are compared with the observed mechanisms. Monitoring options are also discussed.
Beck, D.A. and Sandy, M.P. (2003) Mine sequencing for high recovery in Western Australian mines. AusIMM Bulletin
No.3, May/June, pp. 38-46.
Gaudreau, D. (2006) Current support practices at Perseverance mine. Proceedings 3rd Intl. Sem. on Deep and High
Stress Mining, 2-4 October 2006, Quebec City, Canada.
Guilfoyle, K., Slade, N. and Kenworthy, S. (2006) The N3500 project – deep, high stress and talc. Proceedings 3rd Intl.
Sem. on Deep and High Stress Mining, 2-4 October 2006, Quebec City, Canada.
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Applications of Rock Mechanics to Cut and Fill Mining , Stephanson and Jones (eds), Instn Min. Metall.,
London, pp. 316-329.
Lee, M.F., Mikula, P. and Pascoe, M.J. (2001) Virgin rock stresses vs rock mass strength in Western Australia's Yilgarn
greenstones. Ground Control in Mines Workshop, The Chamber of Minerals and Energy, Perth, June 2001.
Mercier-Langevin, F. and Turcotte, P. (2007) Evolution of support practices at Agnico-Eagle’s LaRonde Division –
innovative solutions to high stress yielding ground. Proc. 1st Canada-US Rock Mech. Symp., Vancouver,
Canada, pp. 1497-1504.
Sandy, M.P. and Player, J.R. (1999) Reinforcement design investigations at Big Bell. Rock Support and Reinforcement
Practice in Mining. Villaescusa, Windsor and Thompson (eds), Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 301-315.
Simser, B., Andrieux, P., Mercier-Langevin, F., Parrott, T. and Turcotte, P. (2006) Field behaviour and failure modes of
modified conebolts at the Craig, LaRonde and Brunswick mines in Canada. Proc. 3rd Intl. Sem. on Deep and
High Stress Mining, 2-4 October 2006, Quebec City, Canada.
Valent, M.C. and Haywood, G. (2002) Yilgarn Star just in time methodology – planning and scheduling implications.
AusIMM Underground Operators’ Conference, Townsville, pp. 39-46.
Deep Mining 07, Perth, Australia 311